We don’t yet know why some people who struggle with their weight internalize society’s stigma and others do not. These findings represent a first step toward helping us identify, among people trying to manage their weight, who may be most likely to self-stigmatize. People who are trying to lose weight may be among the most vulnerable to weight self-stigma, but this issue is rarely discussed in treatment settings.”Study’s lead author Rebecca Pearl, PhD, an assistant professor of Psychology in Psychiatry in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 15 2019Weight bias is a common form of prejudice against people who are viewed as having excess weight. Some individuals who struggle with weight may internalize the stigma directed toward them, blaming and devaluing themselves because of their weight. While it’s known that weight “self-stigma” is associated with poor mental and physical health, it isn’t clear who is most prone to this internalization.In a new study published today in Obesity Science and Practice, researchers at Penn Medicine and the University of Connecticut Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity surveyed more than 18,000 adults enrolled in the commercial weight management program WW International (formerly Weight Watchers Inc.), and found that participants who internalized weight bias the most tended to be younger, female, have a higher body mass index (BMI), and have an earlier onset of their weight struggle. Participants who were black or had a romantic partner had lower levels of internalization. Research has found that, beyond the effects of BMI and depression, self-directed weight stigma is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. In this study–the largest investigation of weight self-stigma in the world–researchers surveyed adults to identify key characteristics and experiences of people who internalize weight bias.Participants recalled when in their life they experienced weight stigma from other people, how frequent and how upsetting the experiences were, and who it was that called them names, rejected them, or denied them an opportunity simply because of their weight. Results showed that almost two-thirds of the participants reported experiencing weight stigma at least once in their life, and almost half reported experiencing these events when they were children or teens. The researchers examined the relationships between these experiences and levels of self-directed stigma.Related StoriesResearch team receives federal grant to study obesity in children with spina bifidaMetabolic enzyme tied to obesity and fatty liver disease’Traffic light’ food labels associated with reduction in calories purchased by hospital employeesParticipants who reported experiencing weight stigma from others had higher levels of internalized weight bias than those who reported no experiences of weight stigma. Researchers say this was particularly true for participants who had weight-stigmatizing experiences early in life and continued to have these upsetting experiences as adults. People who experienced weight stigma from family members or friends, or from those in their workplace, community, or health care setting, also had greater evidence of weight self-stigma compared to participants who did not encounter weight stigma from those sources.”Our findings can inform ways to support people who are experiencing or internalizing weight stigma, including opportunities to address weight stigma as part of weight management and healthy lifestyle programs,” said the study’s principal investigator Rebecca Puhl, PhD, a professor of Human Development and Family Sciences at the University of Connecticut.The study sample, although the largest to date, represented only a small percentage of WW members, so the findings may not generalize to all members or to adults trying to lose weight in other ways. Some prior research has suggested that people who internalize weight bias may have worse long-term weight loss outcomes, but more research on this topic is needed.In addition, Pearl’s team is developing a psychological intervention for weight self-stigma that can be incorporated into weight management. Source:University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Citation: Novel process for surface hardening of stainless steel (2018, April 11) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-surface-hardening-stainless-steel.html Most heat treatment methods cannot be easily applied to stainless steels to improve its properties. In particular, surface hardening of stainless steel by nitriding and nitrocarburising in the conventional temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C is highly detrimental to its corrosion properties. A possible solution is implementing processes that enable lower-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel. The EU-funded project PLASSTEEL has developed an advanced process for low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel that allows accurate tailoring of the material properties. The new heat treatment process can be applied to all ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex grades, imparting the material with unparalleled levels of wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. Increasing hardness at lower temperaturesBased on more than 40 years of experience, IONITECH LTD has developed a plasma nitriding/nitrocarburising furnace achieving excellent temperature uniformity on the whole working area. “The novel plasma nitriding furnace also eliminates the possibility for the ‘hollow-cathode’ effect. This local overheating might lead to temperatures above those needed for the PLASSTEEL process that will in turn lead to chromium carbide and chromium nitride precipitations on the grain boundaries of the steel. These areas will have higher surface hardness but will also be susceptible to intergranular corrosion,” says leading research and development specialist Alexander Varhoshkov. The PLASSTEEL process is based on plasma technology and composed of a solution nitriding and nitrocarburisation process at temperatures below 500°C that enriches the surface layer of a workpiece with nitrogen and carbon. The carbon-containing gas added in nitrocarburisation can be methane, propane or natural gas. Its content varies from 2 to 10 % in the gas mixture. The treatment step can last from several minutes up to 20 hours, depending on the workpiece material and the requirements regarding the layer depth. Throughout the project, several types of stainless steels were processed and tested. Depending on the percentage of the alloying elements in these steels as well as other properties, results slightly varied. “Some of the alloying elements made diffusion of the carbon atoms harder and slower, thus leading to small differences in the diffusion layer and surface hardness. Nevertheless, in any case, the goal was to improve the wear properties of all types of stainless steel, while also retaining their corrosion properties,” says Dr. Varhoshkov.A process as true as steelMost surface-hardening techniques diminish the original corrosion resistance of stainless steels. IONITECH’s advanced new process and plasma nitriding furnace show that this is no longer the norm. “This shortcoming is successfully circumvented by this excellent plasma nitriding furnace that provides precise control over the material properties,” continues Dr. Varhoshkov. Working at low temperatures provided a remedy for dissolving nitrogen or carbon into stainless steel without the formation of chromium nitrides or carbides. Project partners succeeded not only in increasing the surface hardness of the parts by 4 times, but also in improving adhesive and abrasive wear, and the tribological properties of the metal as well. Explore further Antibacterial stainless steel created Stainless steel is the material of choice in various industries where corrosion resistance is of utmost importance, take for instance parts that are exposed to harsh environments. However, this highly favourable property does not always go hand in hand with high surface hardness, wear resistance and fatigue strength. Provided by CORDIS Credit: Alexander Varhoshkov This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The citizenship bill does not require any changes if Clause 6 of the Assam Accord is implemented properly, says Assam Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal about the proposed legislation which the top BJP leadership has vowed to bring back if voted back to power.In an interview to PTI, the student leader-turned politician said that the bill will be brought after arriving at a consensus with all stakeholders.“It (amending the Act) is not a new thing as amendments were taken up nine times before this also. This is a continuous process since 1950,” he said, adding the BJP will ensure constitutional safeguards to Northeast’s political, cultural, social and linguistic identity.Implementing the Assam AccordWhen asked if the Assam government will request the Centre to make necessary changes in the existing bill to allay apprehensions of the people here, Sonowal said that is not needed if the Clause 6 of the Assam Accord is implemented properly.The Clause 6 of the Assam Accord, which was signed in 1985 after the Assam Agitation of 1979-85, envisages that appropriate constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards, should be provided to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of the people of Assam.“If Clause 6 is implemented in letter and spirit, then the indigenous people of Assam are well guarded and protected. That was the agenda ought to be taken up on priority by earlier governments, but it was never seriously considered, Sonowal said.“Now the Prime Minister has taken up the matter with sincerity, commitment and dedication. So, I believe once it is implemented, we have nothing to worry. If Clause 6 is implemented, we have no issue with the citizenship bill, even if it comes in the current form,” he added.Several groups and parties have opposed the bill, which was passed by the Lok Sabha on January 8 but was not tabled in Rajya Sabha and seeks to provide Indian citizenship to Hindus, Jains, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Parsis from Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan after six years of residence in India even if they do not possess any document.Interestingly, though the BJP top brass has been talking about the citizenship bill in poll rallies, the state leaders have not raised the issue in their meetings and speeches. State minister Himanta Biswa Sarma had earlier said that the citizenship bill was a non-issue in the state and the people are more concerned about national issues.Addressing issuesSonowal was once president of the influential All Assam Students’ Union (AASU), which has been at the forefront of the protests against the citizenship bill across the Northeast in the past several months.When told out that the concerns raised by people of Assam and the Northeast were not taken into account while drafting the bill, he disagreed and said the Clause 6 has been taken at the highest level for the first time in the history.“It is Modi-ji who has taken it up and ultimately constituted a high-level committee by the Union Cabinet comprising only Assamese people from different fields. It was given very clear terms of references. The committee has been asked to prepare a report on how Constitutional safeguards can be ensured in best possible manner,” he added.Also read: Protests against Citizenship Bill rock Assam The existence of the nine-member committee is in a lurch with its fifth member and chairman MP Bezbaruah withdrawing from it in January. The other four members refused to be a part of it in protest of the Citizenship Bill, are a representative of the AASU, eminent littérateurs Nagen Saikia and Rong Bong Terang along with educationalist Mukunda Rajbongshi.On resignation of the eminent personalities from the high-level committee, the Chief Minister said, “It is because of chaos and unnecessary false propaganda by Congress, Leftists and some section intellectuals and media.” On the mahagathbandhanSonowal also took a dig at the proposed mahagathbandhan of opposition parties saying the ambitious grouping is dreaming of dethroning Prime Minister Narendra Modi but will “collapse soon” as it does not have any policy on patriotism, integration and service to the nation. He claimed the constituents of this ‘grand alliance’ are together during the ongoing Lok Sabha elections only for their vested interests.“They do not have any policy of integration, service to nation and patriotism. The mahagathbandhan is mainly just to get power. They are all with vested interest,” he said. The members usually stay different, but sometimes they come on the same platform but with different self interests, he added. “So, there is no national interest in it. I have not seen any national interest within themselves. That is why, I firmly believe that it will collapse soon,” he asserted.Also read: Amit Shah focusses on NRC, Citizenship Bill at WB rallyAsked about the BJP’s prospects in Assam in this Lok Sabha elections, Sonowal claimed the saffron party along with its allies AGP and BPF will bag at least 12 seats out of 14 in the state. In 2014, the BJP won seven out of 14 Lok Sabha seats in Assam, the Congress and the AIUDF had three MPs each and one member was an Independent. The two BJP allies, BPF and AGP, had no representation in the Lower House of Parliament. Sonowal strongly refuted allegation of Modi failing to fulfil the promises made in 2014 elections, especially on deporting the illegal infiltrators from Assam, and claimed that update work of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) and steps to implement the Assam Accord are being done to accomplish the task. COMMENTS Amid protests, Lok Sabha passes Citizenship Bill SHARE SHARE SHARE EMAIL Opposition parties protest as Govt moves Constitution amendment bill RELATED NE ‘bandh’ begins against Citizenship Amendment Bill Published on Citizenship (Amendment) Bill COMMENT Assam Sarbananda Sonowal, Chief Minister of Assam (File photo) April 21, 2019
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