Critiques of carbon credits aren’t asking the right question (commentary)

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Carbon Credits, Carbon Emissions, Climate Change, Climate Change And Forests, Commentary, Editorials, Environment, Forest Carbon, Forests, Global Warming, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Researcher Perspective Series Rather than dwelling too much on the conclusions that critiques of carbon credit schemes seem to put forward with such conviction, we should step back and consider, “Are they asking the right question to begin with?”Ultimately, these critiques are premised on the question of whether carbon credits have, to date, delivered all the benefits they’ve promised. Their answer: A decisive “no.” The problem is that such a question, and the response, will leave many readers with the impression that carbon credits are simply a bad option, and we’ll have to look elsewhere for solutions to climate change. Unfortunately, we no longer have such a luxury.So, instead, let’s ask this: “Is there any way to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement without protecting the world’s forests?” The answer here is another resounding “no,” but this one with much more serious implications.This post is a commentary. The views expressed are those of the author, not necessarily Mongabay. fFor those of us who have worked in the world of carbon credits for many years, the criticisms raised in articles like “An (Even More) Inconvenient Truth,” published by ProPublica last month, are nothing new. The idea of allowing polluters to offset their emissions, including by paying to protect or restore forests, has been around for decades, and we’ve heard it all before.Rather than dwelling too much on the conclusions these critiques seem to put forward with such conviction, we should step back and consider, “Are they asking the right question to begin with?”Ultimately, these critiques are premised on the question of whether carbon credits have, to date, delivered all the benefits they’ve promised. Their answer: A decisive “no.” While the recent ProPublica article is not without fault, there is no doubt that many carbon offset programs have failed to live up to expectations over the years, including some profiled in that story.The problem is that such a question, and the response, will leave many readers with the impression that carbon credits are simply a bad option, and we’ll have to look elsewhere for solutions to climate change. Unfortunately, we no longer have such a luxury. We are not in a position to pick and choose our responses to the climate emergency as we would items on a menu. The fact is, we need every solution on the table.So, instead, let’s ask this: “Is there any way to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement without protecting the world’s forests?” The answer here is another resounding “no,” but this one with much more serious implications. The fact is emission reductions alone — however significant — will not be able to limit global warming to 1.5 or even 2 degrees above that of the pre-industrial age. We must also invest in nature. And to do that, carbon credits have a central role to play.By framing the discussion this way, rather than bemoaning past failures, we quickly come to understand just how important it is to learn from these missteps and move forward.The good news is this is already happening, and the diagnosis on carbon credits is not nearly as dire as the ProPublica article suggests. When designed and implemented well, they are an extremely effective response to climate change.The main problem is that ProPublica’s reporter, and many others, still look at the UN’s program for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, known as REDD+, solely as a project-level effort. It’s certainly true that the first generation of initiatives to prevent deforestation were implemented on a project-by-project basis. And, as you would expect, the quality and impact of isolated projects has varied greatly, many succumbing to the failings elaborated in the article. Unfortunately, this legacy of isolated projects has stuck with REDD+ and is perpetuated through articles like ProPublica’s.In reality, though, we’ve come a long way in our understanding since then. In fact, over seven years of negotiations, the United Nations developed a framework to incentivize and implement activities to reduce deforestation. By 2015, it was already clear that the project-level response was not sufficient, and, to be effective, efforts needed to be led at the sub-national or national level. Indeed, this is how REDD+ was written into the Paris Agreement.To give just one example: the Bujang Raba Community PES Project, coordinated by KKI Warsi in Jambi, Indonesia. Facilitated by the Indonesian REDD+ Management Agency, the project conserves 5,339 hectares (about 13,193 acres) of endangered primary rainforest in Sumatera’s Bukit Barisan forest. It involves five indigenous communities. The site is managed by the communities under a “hutan desa” (village forest) program that recognizes and secures land tenure and allows community members to sustainably manage the forest. By engaging local communities, the project reduces forest fires, illegal poaching, and unsustainable harvesting of forest products.According to Planvivo, which established the carbon standard used by the project, the project produces a 40,000-tons-of-CO2-per-year carbon benefit, and conserves the home of threatened species such as the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus), Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus), and the critically-endangered Sumatran Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). It also diversifies income for participating communities by introducing high-value crops such as cardamom, cocoa, and other non-timber products. Bamboo and rattan processing facilities will also open other income streams for the communities. And this is just one example.In short, it’s far too early to call time of death on carbon credits. It’s encouraging to see momentum growing among countries, sub-national actors, and the private sector to ratchet up efforts to the scale needed. But there’s a lot of work still to be done. At the country level, more can be done to include natural climate solutions in national climate targets, which would help drive demand for finance. And, similarly, at the international level, more can be done to use the flexibility allowed by the Paris Agreement for countries to develop natural climate solutions partnerships to increase emission reductions. The upcoming Climate Summit hosted by the UN Secretary-General this September offers a wonderful opportunity to make progress on these fronts.No one says this is going to be easy, but let’s start by asking the right questions. And then let’s work together to move forward.A juvenile sun bear at the Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre, Malaysia. The Bujang Raba Community PES Project in Jambi, Indonesia conserves crucial habitat for the bears. Photo Credit: Siew Te Wong, Thye Lim Tee, and Lin May Chiew, BSBCC.Agus Sari is CEO of Landscape Indonesia. He was Deputy Minister / Deputy Chair of the Indonesian REDD+ Management Agency. He was Co-Chair of the Working Group and Negotiating Contact Group on REDD+ Financing leading up to and at the 2013 UNFCCC COP19.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.center_img Article published by Mike Gaworeckilast_img read more

Newly described Chinese giant salamander may be world’s largest amphibian

first_imgThe critically endangered Chinese giant salamander is not just one, but three distinct species, researchers have now confirmed in a new study.One of the newly recognized species, the South China giant salamander (Andrias sligoi), could be largest amphibian on the planet, the researchers say.The researchers say they hope the recognition of the Chinese giant salamanders as three species will help the amphibians’ conservation by triggering separate management plans for the species. The Chinese giant salamander, which reaches lengths of more than 5 feet (1.6 meters), enjoys the title of being the world’s largest living species of amphibian. However, the critically endangered salamander is not just one, but three distinct species, researchers have now confirmed in a new study.One of the newly recognized species, the South China giant salamander (Andrias sligoi), could be largest amphibian on the planet, the researchers say.“These findings come at a time where urgent interventions are required to save Chinese giant salamanders in the wild,” Melissa Marr, a doctoral researcher at the Natural History Museum, London, and co-author of the study, said in a statement. “Our results indicate that tailored conservation measures should be put in place that preserve the genetic integrity of each distinct species.”A. sligoi painting. Image courtesy of ZSL.The Chinese giant salamander was once widespread across central, eastern and southern China. But habitat loss, poaching, and illegal collection for farming as luxury food items wiped out most animals, making them incredibly rare in the wild today. Millions of these salamanders live on farms, though.In a study published last year, Samuel Turvey, a conservation scientist at the Zoological Society of London, and colleagues who spent four years surveying the salamander’s preferred river habitats across 97 counties in China reported finding only 24 wild individuals at four sites. But even those were likely farmed animals, the researchers said, ones that had either escaped or had been released as part of government-sponsored conservation initiatives.For a long time, all Chinese giant salamanders were considered to be a single species, Andrias davidianus. Some researchers did suspect that the salamander likely comprised more than just the one species, and another study by Turvey and team published last year found just that: analysis of tissue samples from 70 wild-caught and 1,034 farm-bred salamanders showed that the Chinese giant salamander once included least five genetically distinct lineages. Today’s salamanders, however, show extensive hybridization as a consequence of mixing of the species through farming, the researchers said.These genetic studies, however, relied on samples collected in recent decades, when the salamanders had already been moved extensively for farming, making conclusions about distinct species difficult. In the latest study, Turvey and his colleagues analyzed samples from a series of historical museum specimens of the salamanders to see what the wild local populations of the Chinese giant salamander may have been like before the onset of widespread farming and movement of the animals by humans.In the end, the team identified three distinct genetic lineages, sufficiently different enough to represent separate species, each associated with a different river drainage system. These include A. davidianus, A. sligoi, and a third, yet-to-be-named species. The different species of Chinese giant salamanders began to diverge 3.1 million years ago, Turvey said, corresponding to a period of mountain formation in China, as the Tibetan Plateau rose rapidly.Of the three recognized species, the South China giant salamander (A. sligoi) is most likely the largest, reaching 2 meters (6 feet) in length, the researchers say. The third species, which is known only from tissue samples and not any complete specimen, hasn’t yet been formally described.The researchers say they hope that the recognition of the Chinese giant salamanders as three species will help the amphibians’ conservation by triggering separate management plans for the species. The team also urges that efforts be made to identify and protect sites where wild populations of the three different Chinese giant salamander species may still occur.“Salamanders are currently moved widely around China, for conservation translocation and to stock farms that cater for China’s luxury food market,” Turvey said. “Conservation plans must now be updated to recognise the existence of multiple giant salamander species, and movement of these animals should be prohibited to reduce the risk of disease transfer, competition, and genetic hybridisation.”A wild Chinese giant salamander. Image by Ben Tapley.Citation:Turvey, S. T., Marr, M. M., Barnes, I., Brace, S., Tapley, B., Murphy, R. W., … & Cunningham, A. A. (2019). Historical museum collections clarify the evolutionary history of cryptic species radiation in the world’s largest amphibians. Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1002/ece3.5257 Amphibians, Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Endangered Species, Environment, Green, New Species, Research, Salamanders, Species Discovery, Wildlife Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Article published by Shreya Dasguptalast_img read more

Deforestation clips howler monkey calls, study finds

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by John Cannon Agriculture, Animal Behavior, Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Deforestation, Ecology, Edge Effects, Environment, Forest People, Forests, Green, Mammals, Monkeys, Plantations, Primates, Rainforest Animals, Rainforests, Research, Saving Rainforests, Threats To Rainforests, Tropical Forests, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation center_img In a recent study, scientists report that howler monkeys in Costa Rica make longer calls in forest interiors and near naturally occurring forest edges, such as those along rivers, than near human-created edges.The researchers believe that the longer howls serve as a way for male monkeys to protect their groups’ access to higher-quality food resources.The team’s findings indicate that this behavioral change in response to deforestation supports the protection of standing forest and reforestation along human-created forest edges. Howler monkeys change their calls when they’re close to deforested areas, a new study has found.A team of researchers, led by anthropologist Laura Bolt of the University of Waterloo in Canada, looked at the frequency and intensity of mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) calls through several different study zones in Costa Rica in 2017 and 2018.A mantled howler monkey in Costa Rica. Image by Rhett A. Butler/Mongabay.They found that calls were longer among groups living in more pristine environments. As monkey groups moved closer to forest edges created by humans — breaks in the forest created by agricultural plantations, for instance — their calls grew shorter.Bolt and her colleagues don’t know yet whether this shift points to a change in the monkeys’ chances at survival, she said, but it is clear that the human-caused deforestation that creates forest edges is changing their behavior.“This is just one of the many ways that howler monkeys are affected by deforestation,” Bolt said in a statement.A male howler monkey at a wildlife sanctuary in Costa Rica. Image by Steven G. Johnson via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0).The team looked at how the calls morphed as monkey groups moved through the forest interior, along forest edges created by river banks, and near edges created by humans.Scientists aren’t sure exactly why howler monkeys howl, their calls traveling for kilometers through the canopy. But Bolt and her colleagues suspect that the behavior has something to do with warning other monkeys that a set of plentiful food resources is spoken for.“Howler monkeys eat leaves and fruit, and if they are howling to defend these resources, we predicted that males would howl for longer durations of time when in a forest interior or near the river edge, where vegetation is richer compared to anthropogenic edge,” Bolt said.Howler monkey calls can travel for kilometers through the canopy. Image by Rhett A. Butler/Mongabay.Monkeys — males, specifically — howled the longest when they were near higher-quality sources of food, which occur more often deep in the forest or along natural edges than along fences and plantation edges.It’s evidence, the authors reported Dec. 3 in the journal Behaviour, that conservation efforts aimed at protecting these monkeys should focus on maintaining standing forests and the naturally occurring edges near rivers, as well as helping the forest come back in places where humans have created forest edges.Banner image of a mantled howler monkey in Costa Rica by Scott Robinson via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0 ).Citation:Bolt, L. M., Russell, D. G., Coggeshall, E. M., Jacobson, Z. S., Merrigan-Johnson, C., & Schreier, A. L. (2019). Howling by the river: howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) communication in an anthropogenically-altered riparian forest in Costa Rica. Behaviour, 1(aop), 1-24. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003582FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more