Net-Zero Energy on a Mass Scale

first_imgThe goal is to lower carbon emissionsFor the time being, Transition Zero is focused on what’s called “social housing,” which, according to an article in The Washington Post, is similar to public housing in this country. In Europe, public housing is financed by government, but it serves middle-class families as well as low-income tenants.Transition Zero puts homeowners in more comfortable, energy-efficient dwellings without forcing them to pay higher rent. But the broader goal, according to a document detailing efforts to expand the effort to France and the U.K., is reduced carbon emissions in the European Union.“The point of departure of this proposal is focusing on ‘to create what is needed’ instead of focusing on ‘to do what is possible,’” the proposal says. “The implication of a CO2 reduction target of 80% by 2050 is that the European building stock needs to be (nearly) energy neutral by mid-century.”Because buildings are usually refurbished no more often than once every 30 years, these deep energy retrofits must begin very soon, the proposal continues. To that end, Energiesprong is seeking €10 million to widen the program to include 100,000 homes in both the UK and France.It’s going to take a few things to make the effort successful, Energiesprong says, including lower retrofit pricing so that savings in energy are sure to offset construction costs; delivery times measured in days rather than weeks; and upfront capital from financiers who can be confident their investments won’t go belly up.Under normal circumstances, the cost of deep energy retrofits is “substantially” more than projected energy savings, Energiesprong says. “Therefore, we need an intensive innovation process in the construction sector focused on cost reduction, intervention time reduction, and energy performance guarantees,” the statement continues. “This means house owners need to collectively ask for a different type of offering from builders.”Energiesprong says that choosing the right housing stock is essential to getting these programs off the ground: a sufficient number of similar units, a minimum of planning rule issues, and an existing need for maintenance. “Once a builder has developed a refurbishment proposition for one of these houses,” the proposal says, “it can be sold to many, meaning the innovation investment can be spread out over many houses.”There are now projects all over the country, and once the kinks have been worked out, it will be easier to adopt it in the private housing market, the group says. How do they do it?In the U.S., a deep energy retrofit would take months. In the Netherlands, Energiesprong wants the work done in about a week, with homeowners able to stay put through most of the process. The target cost is €40,000 per house (about $50,700).The web site (at least the portion of it in English) doesn’t explain very many of the technical details of the process. For example, we are not given the R-values and airtightness of the wall and roof assemblies before and after the work, or what upgrades to the mechanical systems would be typical. Details on the capacity of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems are missing.But the website does explain generally how it’s done. Window and door frames and the “roof cover” (roofing) are all removed as a first step. Then, brackets are added to existing walls and holes are bored through the wall for ventilation equipment. Prefabricated panels, which include insulation and exterior cladding, are delivered and craned into place. Finally, windows, roof panels, and new mechanical equipment are added. Projects also typically include a new kitchen and bathroom.A video posted to the Energiespring website shows panels being lowered by crane into place on the outside walls of a house and workers bolting them to new brackets. Locals with big grins offer a few comments.In his email, van Erck filled in some of the blanks. The retrofitted houses are all-electric, powered by a 6-kW PV system. There is no mechanical air conditioning, but houses have balanced ventilation systems. Hot water is provided by a heat pump.The heat pump, inverter, hot water storage, and ventilation system are housed separately, rather than installed in the house, van Erck said. Wiring and ducts are contained in the prefabricated wall panels.And how to explain the astonishing speed with which the retrofits are carried out? “Everything is prefabricated,” van Erck said in his email. “So installation does not take long.” The work is carried out by crews of three to five people.The system relies on production-line economies of scale and speed, but because houses are not a completely uniform product, design and fabrication has to be flexible. The key, Energiesprong says, is to use “a 3-D scanning technique that allows to make a quick (and cheap) scan of all the relevant dimensions of a house with great precision.” The dimensions are used to generate technical drawings that guide production in the factory. Energy retrofits offer big savingsAccording to Energiesprong, the houses completed in the Transition Zero (or E=0 as it’s called) program, conventional energy consumption should fall by 15,000 kWh per house per year. About two-thirds of that comes through energy conservation, and the rest from on-site generation.Depending on the house type, homeowners usually pay between €120 and €180 ($150 to $225) per month on energy prior to the retrofits.Overall, the investment will be very large. By the time all 111,000 houses in the Netherlands have been retrofitted, spending will have reached €6 billion, van Erck said by email.In an interview, at Energy Post Energiesprong manager Jasper van den Munckhof said the starting point was what the country spends on household energy every year, about €13 billion. If that money went toward servicing a 30-year loan instead of energy, there would be €225 billion to invest in upgrading the country’s housing stock. “This is substantial money,” he said, “€30,000 to €40,000 per house to make it energy-neutral.”Ultimately, he said, the aim of the initiative is “that people live in better houses, are not dependent on energy anymore and have power over their own energy. Energy became so politicized… Who do you know who drives a 1970s car? In housing stock, it goes a lot slower but you need to get them to the 21st century also.” The program is still ramping upProject Manager Ron van Erck said by email that he wasn’t certain how many houses had been retrofitted to date. But Transition Zero would retrofit about 400 houses this year, he added, and a few thousand next year as the program hits its stride.The initiative started in 2010 with €40 million in seed money, van Erck said. “In the Netherlands, government wanted a coherent program rather than separate small initiatives to bring solutions of energy efficiency to the housing market,” he said. “The government gave us enough leeway to bring this to market.” A project called Transition Zero is retrofitting 111,000 public housing units in the Netherlands for net-zero energy performance, with homeowners swapping their heating and power bills for loan payments that cover the cost of the work.In the end, it will cost these families no more to live in the newly refurbished, net-zero houses than it did when they were paying for heating, lights, and hot water. “The refurbishments are financed [by] the energy cost savings,” says the project’s website.Retrofits should take less than ten days, ideally a week, and they come with a 30-year performance warranty from the builder.As the four-year-old initiative gathers steam, program managers have proposed launching similar efforts in both France and the United Kingdom.Transition Zero is the work of a not-for-profit development group called Energiesprong (meaning Energy Leap), which brokered deals between public housing associations and builders. The effort is ground-breaking in a number of ways. Not only do tenants see rents remain stable after major upgrades to their homes, but builders who design and install prefabricated building components work on the projects without government subsidies.Unless you understand Dutch, or don’t mind using web-based translation software, getting some details about Transition Zero project will be somewhat complicated by a language barrier. Some web pages are in English, but others are not. Still, there’s more than enough available to learn how Transition Zero works.last_img read more

Tiger presence in 3 more Odisha forests

first_imgThe Odisha government has confirmed the presence of tigers in three more forests in the State.Movement of the Royal Bengal tigers has been captured by closed-circuit television cameras installed at the Hemgiri forest in Sundargarh and Debrigarh sanctuaries in Sambalpur districts, while indirect evidence such as people hearing tiger roars and cattle killing by big cats have been collected from the Muniguda forest in Rayagada district.These evidence have prompted Forest and Environment Minister Bijoyshree Routray to put the State’s tiger population at around 60.Increasing populationThe Similipal Tiger Reserve in Mayurbhanj and the Satokosia Tiger Reserve in Angul district are two known habitats of the big cat in the State. According to a tiger census conducted by the State government in 2016, there were around 40 tigers in Similipal. The Wildlife Institute of India had estimated the tiger population of Similipal at 28 in 2014.“We believe that the Sunabeda sanctuary in Nuapada district has four big cats. Neither movement of tigers has been captured on camera, nor has any formal tiger census been conducted there. Sunabeda has been a stronghold of the outlawed CPI(Maoist) because of which the tiger census at the sanctuary has been postponed in the past,” said Mr. Routray.More tiger reserves The Minister said sightings of tigers is a sign that a robust ecosystems exists in the State. The government is planning to propose identification and development of Debrigarh and Sunabeda as two new tiger reserves in the State.At present, the State government is focusing on increasing the tiger population in Satkosia reserve. As part of its strategy, six tigers (three pairs) were to be brought from Madhya Pradesh. Two felines have already been released in Satkosia, but resistance from local population in buffer villages has delayed the transportation and release of the other tigers.last_img read more

10 months agoLiverpool boss Klopp finds Hoever positive in FA Cup defeat

About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Liverpool boss Klopp finds Hoever positive in FA Cup defeatby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool boss Jurgen Klopp was happy with Ki-Jana Hoever’s performance in their FA Cup defeat to Wolves.The 16 year-old played for 84 minutes at the back.“I am not sure what you all would have said if immediately from the beginning if our centre-half situation was Fabinho and Ki-Jana; then probably a few very smart people would tell me that I don’t respect the competition or whatever,” Klopp said.“So, we tried to do all the things [we could]. Of course, on the other hand it doesn’t make sense to bring in a 16-year-old boy from the start. You don’t bring him, you wait until he is completely ready, but he did well. He came on and did well. That’s how it sometimes starts – when you are really needed then it is only about if you are good enough and not how old you are.“He did well, so that was all OK. That’s it.” Hoever had replaced Dejan Lovren and Klopp added: “[It is Dejan Lovren’s] hamstring, is what I heard – without any signs before. I asked everybody, no signs, nothing, just out of the blue, so that’s the decision you have to make.“I don’t know in this moment how long he will be out.” read more

12 days agoMarchisio happy seeing Ramsey wearing his No8 at Juventus

first_imgAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Marchisio happy seeing Ramsey wearing his No8 at Juventusby Carlos Volcano12 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveClaudio Marchisio is happy seeing Aaron Ramsey wearing his No8 at Juventus.The former Juve announced his retirement last week.”I haven’t ruled out anything, but for the moment I have not decided what I will do,” Marchisio told the Daily Mail when asked if he plans to coach.“My No 8 jersey is in the best hands. Aaron Ramsey is a fantastic player. “The No 8 is such a beautiful number that it had to end up on someone’s back. My preferences were two, Ramsey or an academy player who moved up to the first team.” last_img read more

Utah Fan Tries To Make Fun Of Cal’s Academics, Makes Grammatical Error

first_imgUtah fan makes fun of Cal saying "if Marshawn Lynch can get into Cal than anyone can".marshawn lynch cal utah fan spelling errorESPN’s College GameDay is at Utah this week, and Utes fans have come up with some pretty clever signs ahead of their big Pac-12 contest against Cal Saturday night. The one you’ll see below is not one of them.A Utah fan, attempting to make fun of Cal’s academics and question former running back Marshawn Lynch’s intelligence, made a grammatical error. Check it out:SIGN RULE NO. 1: If you’re going to make fun of the other school’s academics, check your grammar. pic.twitter.com/sz8SBEVqOx— College GameDay (@CollegeGameDay) October 10, 2015Marshawn knows the difference between “than” and “then” #gameday pic.twitter.com/qhDoZMinx6— GoldenBlogs (@GoldenBlogs) October 10, 2015For the record, Cal is also one of the best public schools in the country. Major fail all around here.last_img read more

One Year Ago

first_img One Year Ago Louis James Senior Metals Investment Strategist Casey Research Rock & Stock Stats Last Copper 3.05 3.06 3.32 Gold Junior Stocks (GDXJ) 34.91 36.73 50.00 TSX Venture 987.45 1,005.62 951.43 TSX (Toronto Stock Exchange) 14,838.90 14,612.29 12,409.33 Gold Producers (GDX) 22.64 24.28 30.30center_img Oil 102.66 99.50 94.76 Silver 19.01 19.65 22.71 Dear Reader, Jeff Clark recently conducted a survey around the Casey Research virtual water cooler. The results turned out to be much more interesting than he expected, so we’re sharing those with you below. But first, I’m going to step out of my comfort zone and make an open and direct pitch for my services as a metals and mining analyst, which I hope you have come to value by now. As you know, I have written many words in these dispatches pointing out the courage needed to be a true contrarian—and the rewards for the few people who have it. Well, if any of those words rang true to you, I have an offer for you. I have to say up front, however, that this offer is not for everyone. Yet, for those who see the metals trends as I do, and who have the means and the courage to act, this offer could be the single most profit-enhancing opportunity available today. Here’s the deal: our exclusive alert services—my Casey Investment Alert and Marin Katusa’s Casey Energy Confidential—have been opened to new subscriptions for a brief period. Subscribers to these services tend to be fund managers, brokers, traders, and experienced, deep-pocketed investors who can move the market when there’s an exceptional opportunity. So we have to keep enrollment strictly limited to keep some subscribers from pushing share prices too high, to the detriment of other subscribers. Result: It has been 18 months since it was possible to subscribe to my alert service. And now you can. Not only that, if you subscribe to my Casey Investment Alert now, we will throw in a subscription to the Casey Energy Confidential. That’s a $5,000 value, completely free. You also get subscriptions to our monthly letters (BIG GOLD and the International Speculator from my team and Casey Energy Dividends and Casey Energy Report from Marin’s) included. If you already subscribe to one of these, we’ll apply your current subscription fee prorated to your alert subscription, so you lose nothing. As I said, however, these services are not for everyone, and they are not simply more expensive versions of the monthly letters; they are designed for individuals with a higher level of risk tolerance, willing to risk more to gain more. To maximize profit, they need to be willing and able to act promptly and decisively when a Casey Investment Alert arrives. On the other hand, if you ever wondered how Doug Casey hears about the best private placements, it’s the work Marin and I do for our alert subscribers that he and other accredited, qualified investors rely upon. If you ever wondered how to find the best of the high-risk/high-reward, early-stage plays, before they make their big discoveries or surprise the market with a much-larger-than-expected resource estimate, this is how. Worried about gold? Think maybe this is not the time to subscribe to a premium service? Then you probably should not; you’d need courage and conviction to act upon our alerts, so the service wouldn’t do you any good if you’re not convinced that the time to buy is while the markets are correcting. But if you are sure that it’s when markets go into reverse that you can best “buy low” in order to later “sell high,” and you have the mental and financial resources to benefit from our most leverage-enhancing service, then now is the time to act. You have to act quickly, however, as the window of opportunity to subscribe to our premium services closes in three days, on June 12. You could consider this a self-test; if you can’t make up your mind about this offer in three days, it’s almost certainly not for you. That said, I don’t want to talk anyone into making a mistake, so if you subscribe now, we’ll extend our usual 30-day, money-back guarantee to 90 days. If you’re not completely satisfied with the service, just let us know, and we’ll give you a 100% refund within that time frame. So, I’m offering you a way to maximize your profits when the metals markets rebound—which they will—with no risk if you decide it’s not for you within three whole months. No hassles. Here are the subscription details. That’s a lot of upside with little downside: a great spec. Sincerely, Silver Stocks (SIL) 11.76 12.44 14.63 Gold 1,252.75 1,308.60 1,415.80 One Month Agolast_img read more

The sixweek abortion ban known as the heartbeat

first_imgThe six-week abortion ban known as the “heartbeat bill” is now law in Ohio. That makes Ohio the sixth state in the nation to attempt to outlaw abortions at the point a fetal heartbeat can be detected.Gov. Mike DeWine signed the bill Thursday afternoon, just one day after it passed the Republican-led General Assembly. The law is slated to take effect in 90 days, unless blocked by a federal judge. Now known as the “Human Rights Protection Act,” SB 23 outlaws abortions as early as five or six weeks into a pregnancy, before many women know they’re pregnant. It is one of the most restrictive abortion laws in the country.The bill does include an exception to save the life of the woman, but no exceptions for cases of rape or incest.”The essential function of government is to protect the most vulnerable among us, those who don’t have a voice,” DeWine said as he signed the bill. “Government’s role should be to protect life from the beginning to the end.”Federal judges in Kentucky and Iowa have blocked the laws or struck them down as unconstitutional. Another bill in Georgia has yet to be signed by the governor.DeWine’s signature will set off a lengthy legal fight. The ACLU of Ohio announced it will sue to stop the law, which the group says “virtually bans all abortion care.””This legislation is blatantly unconstitutional and we will fight to the bitter end to ensure that this bill is permanently blocked,” said ACLU of Ohio legal director Freda Levenson in a statement.The group plans to sue on behalf of Pre-Term Cleveland, Planned Parenthood of Greater Ohio, Planned Parenthood of Southwest Ohio and the Women’s Med Center of Dayton.But DeWine and lawmakers said they aren’t dissuaded by the threat of legal action. Since taking office in January, DeWine had said he planned to sign whichever version of the heartbeat bill ended up on his desk.”Will there be a lawsuit? Yeah, we are counting on it,” said state Rep. Ron Hood on Wednesday. “We’re counting on it. We’re excited about it.”Anti-abortion groups such as Ohio Right To Life say they intend the heartbeat bill to trigger a U.S. Supreme Court case striking down the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. That case legalized abortion up until viability, usually at 22-24 weeks.”If this is what it takes, we will see you at the Supreme Court,” said Planned Parenthood of Ohio President Iris Harvey at a rally Wednesday outside the Statehouse.The Ohio Senate originally passed the bill last month. The Republican-led House Health Committee then made several changes before sending it to the House floor, where it passed by party-line vote.Beyond changing the name, the Ohio House version allows for the use of transvaginal ultrasounds to detect a fetal heartbeat even earlier in a pregnancy.The bill institutes criminal penalties for doctors who violate the law. Doctors who perform abortions after detecting a heartbeat would face a fifth-degree felony and up to a year in prison. The legislation also allows the State Medical Board to take disciplinary actions against doctors found in violation and impose penalties of up to $20,000.After hearing testimony from lawmakers and advocates, the Ohio House passed the bill Wednesday afternoon, 56-40, and the Ohio Senate quickly followed to affirm the changes, 18-12.”Pro-life Ohio thanks Governor DeWine for taking a courageous stand on behalf of unborn children with beating hearts,” said Ohio Right to Life President Mike Gonidakis in a statement.Currently, Ohio prohibits abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy, and lawmakers in 2018 passed a law banning the “dilation and evacuation” method of abortion used most commonly after 12 weeks of pregnancy. The latter was blocked from taking effect by a federal judge in March.The Ohio Senate in March passed another bill requiring the burial or cremation of fetal remains. The bill is now being considered in the Ohio House.Legislators attempted several times before to pass the heartbeat bill, but the legislation was twice vetoed by former Gov. John Kasich, who warned it would prove costly for the state to defend in court. Copyright 2019 WOSU 89.7 NPR News. To see more, visit WOSU 89.7 NPR News.last_img read more

Care Not Killing poll Assisted suicide would fundamentally change doctorpatient relationship

first_imgFeb 14 2019Introducing physician-assisted suicide would fundamentally change the doctor-patient relationship, finds a major new poll for Care Not Killing.The survey of over 2,000 members of the public found high levels of concern about vulnerable people feeling pressure to end their lives with four in 10 saying changing the law risks normalizing suicide.The ComRes poll asked GB adults about their views on assisted suicide, the model used in Oregon, and how this would affect trust in doctors.Asked “If GPs are given the power to help patients commit suicide it will fundamentally change the relationship between a doctor and patient, since GPs are currently under a duty to protect and preserve lives,” more than twice as many said it would (48 per cent to 23 per cent), while nearly 3 in ten (29 per cent) were not sure.Dr Gordon MacDonald, a spokesman for Care Not Killing commented: The survey asked if legalizing assisted dying risks normalizing suicide and leading to an increase in deaths among the general population. The public were evenly split but almost four in ten (37 per cent) agreed, exactly the same proportion who disagreed – while a quarter were not sure. It concludes by asking if “as a society we ought to try to do everything we reasonably can to reduce the rate of suicides, especially among men who are three times as likely as women to take their own lives”. Eight in 10 agreed (78%), while perhaps surprisingly 6% disagree.Dr MacDonald, concluded: The poll found that most (51 per cent) of those surveyed were concerned that some people might feel pressured into accepting help to take their own life “so as not to be a burden on others”, while half that proportion (25 per cent) disagreed. These figures reflect what is happening in the US states of Oregon and Washington where a majority of those ending their lives in 2017 said that not wanting to be a burden was a motivation for their decision. This compared to just one in five (21 per cent) in those states who were concerned about the possibility of inadequate pain control, or were experiencing discomfort.The survey was commissioned in the wake of the decision by the Royal College of Physicians to survey their members about “assisted dying” and in a highly unusual move require a super-majority of 60 per cent to prevent the doctors group adopting a neutral position.  Asked if cases such as Dr Harold Shipman and the Gosport Hospital scandal made people more concerned that changing the law to allow doctors to prescribe lethal doses of a substance to kill terminally ill patients would fundamentally change the relationship between doctors and patients, more than four in 10 (42 per cent) agreed, 28 per cent disagreed and three in 10 (30 per cent) did not know.Related StoriesHow to get a cheaper prescription before leaving the doctor’s officeEven when HIV prevention drug is covered, other costs block treatmentAre physical examinations by family doctors still needed?The poll found high levels of concern about whether overstretched doctors have the time or clinical ability to accurately assess a patient’s mental capacity if they requested help to end their life.  Alarmingly, more than a quarter of adults (27 per cent), equivalent to 13.5 million patients, said that if assisted suicide were legal, “they would not trust their own GP enough for them to make a decision about their mental capacity to decide whether or not to accept help to take their own life.Dr MacDonald, continued: It is clear that ripping up the longstanding agreement between doctors and society that their job is to save life not to end it would have a seriously damaging effect on how the profession is viewed. In places like Oregon and Washington there have been reports of the sick being denied the life-saving and life-extending drugs they need but offered the poison to end their life. While in Belgium one study found more than 1,000 assisted deaths were without the explicit request of the patient.” This poll shows a greater level of understanding of the difficulties with assisted suicide than most so-called experts think possible. Usually the public are only asked a simple rights based question that is heavily framed, but these questions reveal significant unease around the removing universal protections to allow doctors to kill their patients.” This poll puts a sword to the lie that changing the law on assisted suicide enjoys unremitting support. Abandoning universal protections and expecting doctors to dispense lethal drugs with the express purpose of killing their patients causes alarm. It would undermine the doctor-patient relationship and, as large numbers of the public recognize, risks normalizing suicide.” Source: https://www.carenotkilling.org.uk/last_img read more

Novel process for surface hardening of stainless steel

Citation: Novel process for surface hardening of stainless steel (2018, April 11) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-surface-hardening-stainless-steel.html Most heat treatment methods cannot be easily applied to stainless steels to improve its properties. In particular, surface hardening of stainless steel by nitriding and nitrocarburising in the conventional temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C is highly detrimental to its corrosion properties. A possible solution is implementing processes that enable lower-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel. The EU-funded project PLASSTEEL has developed an advanced process for low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel that allows accurate tailoring of the material properties. The new heat treatment process can be applied to all ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex grades, imparting the material with unparalleled levels of wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. Increasing hardness at lower temperaturesBased on more than 40 years of experience, IONITECH LTD has developed a plasma nitriding/nitrocarburising furnace achieving excellent temperature uniformity on the whole working area. “The novel plasma nitriding furnace also eliminates the possibility for the ‘hollow-cathode’ effect. This local overheating might lead to temperatures above those needed for the PLASSTEEL process that will in turn lead to chromium carbide and chromium nitride precipitations on the grain boundaries of the steel. These areas will have higher surface hardness but will also be susceptible to intergranular corrosion,” says leading research and development specialist Alexander Varhoshkov. The PLASSTEEL process is based on plasma technology and composed of a solution nitriding and nitrocarburisation process at temperatures below 500°C that enriches the surface layer of a workpiece with nitrogen and carbon. The carbon-containing gas added in nitrocarburisation can be methane, propane or natural gas. Its content varies from 2 to 10 % in the gas mixture. The treatment step can last from several minutes up to 20 hours, depending on the workpiece material and the requirements regarding the layer depth. Throughout the project, several types of stainless steels were processed and tested. Depending on the percentage of the alloying elements in these steels as well as other properties, results slightly varied. “Some of the alloying elements made diffusion of the carbon atoms harder and slower, thus leading to small differences in the diffusion layer and surface hardness. Nevertheless, in any case, the goal was to improve the wear properties of all types of stainless steel, while also retaining their corrosion properties,” says Dr. Varhoshkov.A process as true as steelMost surface-hardening techniques diminish the original corrosion resistance of stainless steels. IONITECH’s advanced new process and plasma nitriding furnace show that this is no longer the norm. “This shortcoming is successfully circumvented by this excellent plasma nitriding furnace that provides precise control over the material properties,” continues Dr. Varhoshkov. Working at low temperatures provided a remedy for dissolving nitrogen or carbon into stainless steel without the formation of chromium nitrides or carbides. Project partners succeeded not only in increasing the surface hardness of the parts by 4 times, but also in improving adhesive and abrasive wear, and the tribological properties of the metal as well. Explore further Antibacterial stainless steel created Stainless steel is the material of choice in various industries where corrosion resistance is of utmost importance, take for instance parts that are exposed to harsh environments. However, this highly favourable property does not always go hand in hand with high surface hardness, wear resistance and fatigue strength. Provided by CORDIS Credit: Alexander Varhoshkov This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more