International charity and educational partner Free The Children, in partnership with Title sponsors Cheerios, Green Giant and Yoplait, announced the second group of names joining the star-studded lineup set to inspire 18,000 students who have earned their way through service to attend the first-ever We Day Minnesota at the Xcel Energy Center on October 8.Sharing their passion for change, international experiences and energizing the crowd with unforgettable performances will be multi-platinum, chart-topping artists the Jonas Brothers and Carly Rae Jepsen along with renowned speakers including Barbara Pierce Bush, award-winning actress and activist Mia Farrow, international activists and Free The Children co-founders, Craig and Marc Kielburger. Also joining via Skype for an important message will be award-winning singer-songwriter and Free The Children ambassador, Demi Lovato.Considering We Day has been called the Super Bowl for service, the event’s all-star roster will fittingly include NFL players from the Minnesota Vikings and other local dignitaries and personalities, including We Day co-chairs and siblings, Dean Phillips and Hutton Phillips, the Governor of Minnesota, Mark Dayton, Minnesota Commissioner of Education, Brenda Cassellius, Mayor of St. Paul, Chris Coleman, Jack Jablonski and spoken word poet and rapper Dessa.In the year of the 50th anniversary of his father’s memorable I Have a Dream speech, an exciting addition to the lineup is human rights advocate Martin Luther King III, who will be speaking at all We Day events across North America in 2013.Leading the electrified crowd as a co-host will be platinum selling artist and star of Disney’s Good Luck Charlie, Bridgit Mendler.“I had the opportunity this past summer to participate with Free The Children’s communities in Kenya, and see first-hand the lasting impact that youth in North America are making through their charitable work,” said Joe Jonas from the Grammy-nominated, multi-platinum band the Jonas Brothers. “I understand what it means to these communities to have access to clean water and an education and I was thrilled to get involved by committing to help build two schools overseas with Free The Children. It may seem like a simple assignment to make one local and one global commitment, but these efforts fundamentally impact the lives of people around the world.”We Day is a stadium-sized educational event and a movement of young people leading local and global change. We Day is tied to the year-long program, We Act, which supports students and educators with free educational resources, student-led campaigns and support materials to help turn the event’s inspiration into sustained activation. Since 2007, youth involved in the We Act program have raised $37 million dollars for over 1,000 local and global causes and logged more than 9.6 million volunteer hours.The 2013/2014 We Day season will be the largest season to date. We Day will see more than 160,000 in attendance in 12 cities across North America, and internationally for the first time with We Day UK in spring 2014, truly making this a global movement for change.We Day and the We Act program are free of charge to the thousands of students and educators in attendance at the event and state-wide, thanks to the generous support of sponsors led in Minnesota by Title Sponsors Cheerios, Green Giant and Yoplait along with other supporters, including Bremer Bank, the Otto Bremer Foundation, The Edward J. Phillips Family Foundation and the Carlson Family Foundation.
Kashmiri women shout slogans during a protest after the scrapping of the special constitutional status for Kashmir by the Indian government, in Srinagar, on 11 August 2019. Photo: ReutersIndian authorities reimposed some restrictions in parts of Kashmir on Sunday ahead of the Muslim festival Eid, amid fears that large gatherings could trigger renewed protests against Delhi’s withdrawal of special rights for the region.Indian prime minister Narendra Modi’s government locked down the Muslim-majority region last Sunday, cutting off communications, detaining more than 300 political leaders and activists, and putting a ‘virtual curfew’ into force with numerous police and army roadblocks stopping movement by many residents.Seeking to tighten its grip on the region also claimed by neighbouring Pakistan, India scrapped Jammu and Kashmir’s right to frame its own laws and allowed non-residents to buy property there.On Friday, restrictions on movement in some parts of the Himalayan region’s main city of Srinagar were relaxed, with people pouring out on to the streets to stock up on provisions.But protests erupted after Friday prayers, with pro-independence youth demonstrating before being repelled by tear gas and pellets, according to police sources, witnesses and footage shown by international broadcasters.On Sunday, a Reuters reporter saw a police van driving around one part of Srinagar announcing that restrictions had been imposed again and asking people to stay indoors.Police checkpoints were also placed on some roads leading to the old quarter of the city, a traditional hotbed of protests, and some streets in central Srinagar.Officials were debating how to handle Monday’s Eid-al-Azha festival, one of the two most important festivals of the Islamic calendar, which typically sees several thousands throng major mosques in Srinagar.Indian officials will hold a video-conference with senior police and administration officials from all 10 districts in the disputed Kashmir valley on Sunday evening to decide on restrictions, two senior state government officials told Reuters.”We will make an assessment of the situation today,” one official said, requesting anonymity because he is not authorised to speak to the media. “I do not think we will allow large gatherings.”Kashmiri men shout slogans during a protest after the scrapping of the special constitutional status for Kashmir by the Indian government, in Srinagar, on 11 August 2019. Photo: ReutersIndia’s home ministry did not immediately respond to a request for comment on the latest restrictions in Kashmir.Leaders in Kashmir had warned of a backlash against the stripping of autonomy in a territory where militants have been fighting Indian rule for nearly 30 years, leading to the deaths of more than 50,000 people.Reuters reported at least 10,000 people were involved in Friday’s protest in Srinagar’s Soura area, based on an estimate provided by a police source and backed up by two eyewitnesses. Another official source on Saturday gave Reuters the same estimate.Dilbag Singh, the Jammu and Kashmir director general of police, told Reuters on Sunday that between 1,000 and 1,500 people were returning from praying at mosques on Friday when “some miscreants” started pelting stones at security officials.”It was a reaction to stone pelting by these miscreants that one or two rounds of pump action gun was fired,” Singh said, adding that four to five men suffered injuries.Authorities had detained around 300 local leaders in total and some of them had been taken out of Kashmir, he said.Pakistan’s WrathPakistan has downgraded diplomatic ties with India and suspended trade in anger at Delhi’s latest move.Pakistani prime minister Imran Khan on Sunday compared India’s ruling Hindu nationalist party’s policies to dictator Adolf Hitler’s “Nazi Aryan Supremacy.” He warned Modi’s actions would go beyond Kashmir and eventually target Indian Muslims and neighbouring Pakistan.”Attempt is to change demography of Kashmir through ethnic cleansing. Question is: Will the world watch & appease as they did Hitler at Munich?” Khan tweeted.Ram MAzhav, a senior leader in India’s ruling Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), hit back.”Threat to democratic world is from Pak-sponsored Jehadi terror, not from India,” MAzhav tweeted.Pakistan said on Saturday that it had gained China’s support to take a motion to the United Nations Security Council condemning the Indian decision to change the status of Jammu and Kashmir.Islamabad has not received much support from other major nations, however, suggesting its odds of success at the UN were slim.India’s BJP has long campaigned for abrogating Kashmir’s special privileges in the constitution, which it sees as an appeasement to Muslims and a hindrance to its own development.The BJP and even some top opposition leaders have welcomed the decision to absorb Kashmir fully into India, and it has brought Modi support across the country.Blocked off from the world and largely unable to work or socialize, many Kashmiris were sombre ahead of Monday’s festival. Some said they would not partake in the ritual sacrificing of sheep.”What kind of Eid is this?” said one elderly man walking down a street in downtown Srinagar’s Jamia Masjid area. “We cannot reach our loves ones, we cannot visit our relatives’ homes, then what are we celebrating?” he said, declining to be named.
India features very high on Belarus’ agenda. The country considers its ever expanding trade and economic cooperation with India as an important contribution to ensure long-standing traditionally friendly and constructive comprehensive ties.India is one of Belarus’ most important partners in Asia. Both the countries have considerably increased the volume of their bilateral trade. Belarus had previously contributed significantly both to the trade and economic component of the Soviet-Indian relations, supplying Belarus tractors, large capacity dump-trucks and other high-tech machinery to India. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Today, the volume of bilateral trade in 2012 increased nearly 2.7 times compared to 2007 and totals $494.4 million. Export of Belarusian products to the Indian market increased over 2.6 times. Among Belarusian goods exported to India are potash fertilizers, large capacity mining vehicles, synthetic cord, acrylic fibers, tyres, bearings, transmitting and receiving equipment, leather, electronic integrated microcircuits and other products.The major Belarusian product supplied to the Indian market are potash fertilizers which are very important for increasing productivity of Indian agriculture and ensuring food security. There is also a dynamic increase of Indian import to Belarus. In 2012, the total volume of Indian goods delivered to the Belarusian market amounted over $ 230 million. India is the biggest supplier of medicine and pharmaceutical substances to Belarus. Among other imported goods are raw tobacco, tea, sea products, spices, nuts, vegetable oils, chemical products, cotton yarn, transformers. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixSince 1998, the Intergovernmental Belarus-India Commission for Cooperation in the Fields of Economy, Trade, Industry, Science, Technology and Culture has been functioning. The Commission plays a decisive role in working out the consolidated approach of both the parties to cooperation in the above mentioned fields.Another effective tool to expand bilateral mutually beneficial business ties is the Business Council “Belarus-India” which functions under the aegis of the Belarusian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Eight sessions of the Council have been organized so far. The visit of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Belarus to India on November 13- 14, 2012 gave a new stimulus to the development of bilateral relations, including in trade, economic, investment and industrial fields. In November 2012, over 60 enterprises, organizations and institutions of Belarus took part in the National Exposition of the Republic of Belarus at the 32nd Indian International Trade Fair in New Delhi. It provided a good opportunity to establish new business contacts between Belarusian and Indian companies.However, there is still a lot of work to do in the sphere of development of trade, economic and industrial cooperation and increasing of turn-over between our two countries. A wide unexplored potential exists in the sphere of technical and industrial cooperation and creation of Belarus-India joint ventures for production of agricultural machinery, engines, cargo vehicles, including high capacity mining trucks.Both the countries have vast perspectives of cooperation in pharmaceutical sphere. Belarus is very much interested not only in buying Indian medicine and pharmaceutical products but also to attract Indian upgraded technology in this field for the expansion of production of pharmaceutical goods and to contribute to the strengthening of the national health security. Belarus is an attractive and safe destination for foreign investments. The country has adopted a well-elaborated investment legislation aimed to encourage investment activities and protect the investors’ rights in its territory. Six free economic zones (FEZs) function in Belarus providing preferential terms of activities to their residents.Among the advantages of doing business in Belarus are favourable economic and geographical location along the eastern boundary of the European Union provides Belarus with an opportunity to serve as a strategic platform for foreign investors to start their business in the promising CIS markets. With the entry into force of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia and the formation of the Unified Economic Space, foreign investors enjoy a smooth access to a huge common market of the three states; political, social, and economic stability, low crime and corruption rate, absence of conflicts; highly skilled manpower makes the country’s labour market particularly attractive. Highly developed industrial and scientific potential has made the Belarusian economy an export-oriented one.
Evolving from the ancient Celtic holiday of Samhain, modern Halloween has become less about literal ghosts and ghouls and more about costumes and candy. To celebrate the night of the dead, Delhiites dress up at their spookiest best.Skeletons, tombstones, spider webs and glowing pumpkins are amongst the popular decor items, but the list can go on and on. The day has become yet another excuse for youngsters to dress up at their horrific best and have some fun. Party stores, costume shops and make-up artists are gearing up to cash in on the trend to transform people into creepy characters ahead of the festival. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Know to be an American holiday, Halloween seems to be gaining fast popularity in India. “People have started getting quite serious about their looks, as many popular pubs and nightclubs in the city are throwing parties that hold ‘ghostly’ competitions and give away fancy prizes to the best dressed,” said – a makeover expert. Recognising an increasing demand for Halloween parties director of a local bar said, “We have decorated our pub with scary chandeliers and skeletons, making it look like a dark dungeon. Our in-house DJ will play scary music all night to make it a complete Halloween experience. We are also calling three artists to paint faces.” Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixChild-friendly Halloween setups also seem to be in demand as they are being organised to cater the needs of both parents and toddlers. “The idea is to involve the whole family in this festival, which is why we are going for a lighter Halloween theme party this year. We will have people dressed up in cartoon characters such as superman, spiderman etc. We are also organising a best-dressed competition and children will also be allowed to take instant photographs with their favourite cartoon character,” said an event organiser. In spite of being the most ‘in’ thing recently, Halloween somehow seems to be stuffed within the boundaries of a clubhouse or a private party. The famous trick or treat tradition is not that successful in a country where parents spend a lot of energy warning children not to talk to strangers. This puts us in a position to question the custom we have adopted mindlessly. Because let’s face it, no Indian parent would want their children to dress up in a blood sucking vampire costume, they would rather dress them up as engineers or doctors! While Dussehra was celebrated to fight good over evil then why to bring evil back in the form of Halloween? Think about it!
Kolkata: Trinamool Congress supremo Mamata Banerjee said on Thursday that the BJP will not get any seat in Bengal and there will be a “new combination” government at the Centre. In an interview to a national channel, Banerjee said: “BJP will get zero in Bengal. Bengal and Uttar Pradesh will emerge as the kingmaker states. BJP will score a zero in Punjab, Delhi and the southern states.”She alleged that the BJP and RSS are supporting Congress candidates. “BJP is backing Congress and CPI(M) and vice versa. Even RSS is backing Congress candidates. They are doing this in Punjab also,” she pointed out. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataBanerjee said with confidence that neither the NDA nor UPA will come to power in Delhi. “Neither of the two will come to power in Delhi on its own. There will be a completely new combination this time,” she said. Asked to comment on who would become the Opposition’s choice for Prime Minister, she maintained: “The Prime Minister will be selected by the United India leaders unanimously. We will sit and discuss amongst us and there will be a common minimum programme and on the basis of that, the new leader will be elected. We will find a good Prime Minister for sure,” she said. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateBanerjee alleged that the BJP is dividing people on the basis of religion and trying to control the food habits of people. “They are using religion as a commodity to win elections. They are using religion to create a divide among the people and are inciting one against the other. It is a dangerous trend in the country, she remarked and added: “We believe in the religion of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda. For us, tolerance is religion. BJP has imported a new religion and is spreading hatred throughout the country. But people in Bengal are secular. You will find Hindus in Iftar parties and Muslims during Durga Puja celebrations. We have Durga Puja committees where Muslims hold key roles. For generations, the Hindus and Muslims have lived together. It was Rabindranath Tagore who had tied ‘rakhi’ as a mark of protest against the British government’s proposal to partition Bengal in 1905,” she said, adding: “We are tolerant in Bengal and BJP cannot get votes by dividing people,” she said. Banerjee alleged that the language of Narendra Modi and some of the BJP leaders are “nasty” and such language is uncalled for. “As political leaders, we must have control over the language we use. The Model Code of Conduct should be kept in mind.” She felt that the BJP should not bring the Balakot incident in political campaigns. We all respect the Indian Army and no one should bring them up and their achievements during poll campaigns,” she maintained. Banerjee reiterated that if the United India government comes to power there will be an inquiry into Modi’s decision to ban high-value notes. “The note ban is a big scam and it will be probed once the new government takes over. It has shattered our economy and has made lakhs of people unemployed.” Asked about the participation of young people in politics, she said: “It is time for them to take up the baton. We all want our future generations to take up the baton.” She said Abhishek did not want to join politics but later, he changed his mind. Banerjee categorically said she does not support the Citizenship Amendment Bill and NRC. “They are being used to create fear psychosis among the people. But rest assured, BJP will not be able to divide society.” Commenting on her simple living, the Chief Minister added: “I do not take the salary as the Chief Minister or the salary as the Union Railway minister. I have written more than 80 books and the royalty I get helps me to use my own car and survive. As advised by doctors, I walk 20 km a day and try to look after my health.”
Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. February 28, 2017 Enroll Now for Free Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now 5 min read This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. Chatbots are the new rage as more top brands are advancing the technology and integrating it into their chat systems. Big names such as Facebook and Telegram have already made moves in this arena by creating their own chatbots and chatbot platforms.Over the past couple months, I’ve been trying to implement chatbots into my company Due. For many, chatbot marketing can sound overwhelmingly complicated, but a chatbot, not so much. It can truly save you enourments of time.With numerous advancements and tools being created to make the process easy, making a chatbot does not seem out of the question. So, if you are thinking about jumping on the chatbot bandwagon, here are the top 10 platforms for you to know about.Related: Enterprise Chatbots Platforms and the Future of WorkChattyPeopleChattypeople is the best chatbot platform for creating an AI chatbot on Facebook with integrated Facebook commerce. With Chattypeople you can create a Facebook message both quickly and easily, no coding required. The platform’s simplicity makes it ideal for entrepreneurs and marketers in smaller companies, while its technology makes it suitable for enterprise customers. You can make a simple bot answering customer service questions or integrate it with Shopify to monetize your Facebook fan pages. ChattyPeople is where f-commerce and ai-commerce come together. Chattypeople is 100% free to get started.Related: Enterprise Chatbots and the Conversational Commerce Revolutionizing BusinessMEOKAYMEOKAY is one of the top tools to create a conversational Messenger bot. It makes it easy for both skilled developers and non-developers to take part in creating a series of easy to follow steps. Within minutes, you can create conversational scenarios and build advanced dialogues for smooth conversations. Once you are done, link and launch your brand new chatbot.Related: How to Create a Facebook Messenger Chatbot For Free Without CodingSmoochSmooch acts as more of a chatbot connector that bridges your business apps, (ex: Slack and ZenDesk) with your everyday messenger apps (ex: Facebook Messenger, WeChat, etc.) It links these two together by sending all of your Messenger chat notifications straight to your business apps, which streamlines your conversations into just one application. In the end, this can result in smoother automated workflows and communications across teams. These same connectors also allow you to create chatbots which will respond to your customer chats…. boom!Related: Make Chats With Chatbots WorkBotsifyBotsify is another Facebook chatbot platform that helps make it easy to integrate chatbots into the system. Its paid subscription helps you in five easy steps. 1) Log into the botsify.com site, 2) Connect your Facebook account, 3) Setup a webhook, 4) Write up commands for the chatbot you are creating, and 5) Let Botisfy handle the customer service for you. If the paid services are a little too much, they do offer a free service that lets you create as many bots as your lovely imagination can dream up.Beep BoopIf you are looking for another paid platform, Beep Boop may be your next stop. It is a hosting platform that is designed for developers looking to make apps for Facebook Messenger and Slack specifically. First, set up your code using Github, the popular version control repository and Internet hosting service, then input it into the Beep Boop platform to link it with your Facebook Messenger or Slack application. The bots will then be able to interact with your customers with real-time chat and messaging.Related: The How-To: Using Chatbots As A Tool For Customer ServiceChatfuelNeed a Facebook bot? Well, look no further, as Chatfuel makes it easy for you to create your own Facebook and Telegram Chatbot without any coding experience necessary. It works by letting users link to external sources through plugins. Eventually, the platforms hope to open itself to third-party plugins, so anyone can contribute their own plugins and have others benefit from them.Facebook Messenger PlatformHave you checked out Facebook Messenger’s official page lately? Well, now you can start building your own bot directly through the platform’s landing page. This method though, may be a little bit more complicated than some of the previous ways we’ve discussed, but there are a lot of resources that Facebook Messenger provides in order to help you accomplish your brand new creation. Through full-fledged guides, case studies, a forum for Facebook developers, and more, you are sure to be a chatbot creating professional in no time.Telegram BotsBuild a bot directly from one of the top messaging apps themselves. By building a bot in Telegram, you can easily run a bot in the application itself. The company recently open-sourced their chatbot code, making it easy for third-parties to integrate and create bots of their own. Their Telegram API, which they also built, can send customized notifications, news, reminders, or alerts. Integrate the API with other popular apps such as YouTube and Github for a unique customer experience.Related: #4 Chatbots Took Full Advantage Of India’s DemonetizationBotKitA toolkit can be integral to getting started in building chatbots, so insert, BotKit. It gives a helping hand to developers making bots for Facebook Messenger, Slack, Twilio, and more. This BotKit can be used to create clever, conversational applications which map out the way that real humans speak. This essential detail differentiates from some of its other chatbot toolkit counterparts.FlowXOLast, but not least coming in with the bot platform for business is FlowXO, which creates bots for Messenger, Slack, SMS, Telegraph and the web. This platform allows for creating various flexibility in bots by giving you the option to create a fully automated bot, human, or a hybrid of both. ChatBot expert Murray Newlands commented that “Where 10 years ago every company needed a website and five years ago every company needed an app, now every company needs to embrace messaging with AI and chatbots.”
Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals Disclosure: Our goal is to feature products and services that we think you’ll find interesting and useful. If you purchase them, Entrepreneur may get a small share of the revenue from the sale from our commerce partners. For the secret sauce behind 150,000 companies’ customer service success—including 83 percent of Fortune 500 firms—look no further than Salesforce, a customer relationship management (CRM) system that gives businesses detailed overviews of their customers to help them better connect with them.Salesforce is unique in that it’s cloud-based, meaning it lets users track customer activity, organize personalized marketing campaigns, collaborate among teams, and manage communities from anywhere and on any device; it’s a completely streamlined experience. And with a bit of training in Salesforce’s platform, you could be jockeying for a bankable new gig (and an impressive new line on your résumé, at the very least): In one survey, certified Salesforce professionals made $17,250 more annually than their uncertified counterparts. Fasttrack yourself to such professional success with 65 hours of learning through the Salesforce Certification Training Bundle. On sale for a limited time, it includes eight classes that cover the platform’s various ins and outs:Salesforce Einstein Discovery: Introduction to AI and Data Science (a $39.99 value)Over the course of 26 lectures, you’ll get a comprehensive run-down of Salesforce’s capability to perform automated AI and data science tasks, which eliminate a need for coding.Salesforce Service Cloud Consultant Certification Course (a $199.99 value)By the time you complete this 115-lesson class on designing and deploying customer service solutions using Salesforce’s Service Cloud and OmniChannel features, you’ll be more than ready to get certified as a Salesforce Service Cloud Consultant.Salesforce Sales Cloud Consultant Certification Course (a $199.99 value)Ace the Sales Cloud Consultant certification exam with this 11-hour course covering different aspects of Salesforce’s performance management tool, including Salesforce Lightning page configuration and creating opportunity record types.Introduction to Salesforce Certification and Career Planning (a $20 value)Explore the various certifications and career opportunities made available by a Salesforce education with this 17-lecture course that includes résumé tips and resources. Complete Salesforce & Salesforce1 New User Training Course (a $40 value)If you aspire to lead a company’s Salesforce initiative one day, this class will get you properly up to speed on what it takes to manage accounts, market to new demographics, utilize the Salesforce1 mobile app, and other relevant skills across 59 lectures.Salesforce Lightning Experience User Training (a $20 value)Dive head-first into brand new Salesforce Lightning Experience interface with the help of this three-hour class featuring insights on its new reports and dashboards. The Complete Salesforce Administrator Certification Course (a $195 value)A study guide for the Salesforce Administrator Certification Exam and hands-on experience with Salesforce’s interface are both included in this 77-lesson course.Salesforce Platform App Builder Developer 401 Certification (a $195 value)This 20-hour course is modeled after the official study guide for the Salesforce Platform App Builder Certification exam. Translation: It covers just about everything you need to know to pass said exam, from workflow automation procedures to setting up security permissions.You’d be out $909.97 if you bought each of those courses separately, but with the Salesforce Certification Training Bundle, lifetime access to all of that training is available for just $29.99. 3 min read Register Now » Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. December 18, 2018
Last week, Joe Groff of the Swift Core Team published a post on the Swift forums discussing refining the Swift Generics model which was established by the Generics Manifesto, almost three years ago. The post introduced new changes to improve the UI of how generics work in the Swift language. The first part of this group of changes is the SE-0244 proposal. This proposal introduces some features around function return values. SE-0244 proposal The SE-0244 proposal addresses the problem of type-level abstraction for returns. At present Swift has three existing generics features in Swift 5. Type-level abstraction The syntax of a type level abstraction is quite similar to generics in other languages, like Java or C#. In this users type out the function definitions, use angle brackets, and conventionally use T for a generic type, all of it happening at the function (or type) level. Each of the functions for Type-level abstraction has a placeholder type T. Each call site then gets to pick what concrete type is bound to T, making these functions very flexible and powerful in a variety of situations. Value-level abstraction Value-level abstraction deals with individual variables. It is not concerned with making general statements about the types that can be passed into or out of a function; instead, developers need to worry only about the specific type of exactly one variable in one place. Existential type Many swift libraries consist of composable generic components which provide primitive types along with composable transformations to combine and modify primitive shapes into more complex ones. These transformations may be composed by using the existential type instead of generic arguments. Existential types are like wrappers or boxes for other types. However, they bring more dynamism and runtime overhead than desired. If a user wants to abstract the return type of a declaration from its signature, existentials or manual type erasure are the two choices. However, these come with their own tradeoffs. Tradeoffs of existing generics features The biggest problem of the original genetic manifesto is generalized existentials. Present existentials have a variety of use cases that could never be addressed. Although existentials would allow functions to hide their concrete return types behind protocols as implementation details, they would not always be the most desirable tool for this job. This is because they don’t allow functions to abstract their concrete return types while still maintaining the underlying type’s identity in the client code. Also, Swift follows in the tradition of similar languages like C++, Java, and C# in its generics notation, using explicit type variable declarations in angle brackets. However, this notation can be verbose and awkward. So new improvements need to be made for existing notations for generics and existentials. Reverse generics Currently Swift has no way for an implementation to achieve type-level abstraction of its return values independent of the caller’s control. If an API wants to abstract its concrete return type from callers, it must accept the tradeoffs of value-level abstraction. If those trade-offs are unacceptable, the only alternative in Swift today is to fully expose the concrete return type. These tradeoffs led to the introduction of a new type system feature to achieve type-level abstraction of a return type. Coined as reverse generics by Manolo van Ee, this system behaves similar to a generic parameter type, but whose underlying type is bound by the function’s implementation rather than by the caller. This is analogous to the roles of argument and return values in functions; a function takes its arguments as inputs and uses them to compute the return values it gives back to the caller. This process has already begun with a formal review in progress on SE-244: Opaque Result Types. This proposal covers the “reverse generics” idea and some keyword in return types. “If adopted”, says Tim Ekl, a Seattle-area software developer, “it would give us the ability to return a concrete type hidden from the caller, indicating only that the returned value conforms to some protocol(s)”. He has also written an interesting blog post summarizing the discussion by Joe Groff on the swift forums page. Note: The content of this article is taken from Joe Groff’s discussion. For extensive details, you may read the full discussion on the Swift forums page. Read Next Swift 5 for Xcode 10.2 is here! Implementing Dependency Injection in Swift [Tutorial] Apple is patenting Swift features like optional chaining