For Ecuador’s Sápara, saving the forest means saving their language

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored The Sápara people of Ecuador, who live in one of the most biodiverse forests in the world, are fighting to retain their traditional language, spoken today by only a handful of native speakers.Tropical rainforests around the world and especially in Latin America are at the forefront of a rapid decline in linguistic diversity, and the traditional ecological knowledge encoded in it.Half of the world’s languages, many spoken by only a few dozen or a few hundred people, are kept alive by only 0.1 percent of the world’s population, and constitute some of the most threatened languages.2019 has been declared the “year of indigenous languages” by the U.N., in recognition of the importance of linguistic diversity around the world and its rapid decline. NAPO, Ecuador — Gloria Ushigua, president of the Sápara women’s association, stops by a large, thin, spindly tree that looks almost dead, and breaks off a thin branch. Running her fingers along it, she finds a small, almost invisible inch-long raised groove and bites into it. Tiny ants swarm out, which she picks off with her teeth. “Ormigas acidas,” or sour ants, she explains in Spanish. “Before my grandparents even heard of limes or lemons, we used these ants to season our dishes when we wanted a sour taste.”This is just one of many examples of how the Sápara, who have inhabited the eastern part of the Ecuadoran Amazon in the Napo eco-region around Yasuni National Park for centuries, have developed a deep local understanding and language for the rainforest they call home — a rainforest that happens to also be one of the most biodiverse places on Earth. But that knowledge is threatened on multiple levels.Gloria shows a fungi commonly used for ear-ache. The cultural and oral traditions of the Sapara are considered an “intangible cultural heritage of humanity” by UNESCO because of the depth of ecological and medicinal knowledge the Sapara have. Image by Sarah Sax for MongabayCurrently, only 400 Sápara, considered the smallest of the Ecuadoran indigenous nations, remain, and only a handful of elders speak Sápara fluently; when they die, many of the stories and traditional ecological knowledge encoded in the language is at risk of extinction. The nation also faces external pressure: their roughly 400,000-hectare (990,000-acre) territory sits on top of six oil concessions, two of which the Ecuadoran government has repeatedly tried to auction off.“It’s a dangerous situation for us, the Sápara,” Ushigua says. “There are so few of us in our territory and there is also petroleum in our territory. We know that if we allowed oil extraction in our territory it would be the end of us for good.”The story of the Sápara’s decline isn’t dissimilar to that of other nations and tribes in the Amazon Basin. Once a nation of around 200,000 people, the Sápara were decimated after contact with outsiders through the rubber trade, enslavement and disease. Now they’re in a race against time to revitalize their dying language. And they’re not alone. At least a quarter of the world’s languages are threatened with extinction, according to a WWF report in 2014, and most of them are indigenous.Language losses in forests worldwideA recent U.N. report on the state of global biodiversity warns that as many as a million species could be at risk from extinction in the coming decades. The U.N. has also designated 2019 the “year of indigenous languages,” to draw attention to the rapid decline in indigenous languages worldwide. Even though indigenous people constitute less than 5 percent of the world’s population, they conserve an estimated 80 percent of the world’s biodiversity.Globally, areas of high biological diversity, largely tropical rainforests, are also areas of high cultural-linguistic diversity. In fact, the three core areas of biocultural diversity are situated in the three largest, most intact tropical rainforests: the Amazon, the Congo Basin, and Southeast Asia.“When you look at distribution of languages around the world, tropical forests really show up as hotspots of linguistic diversity, and overlap with trends in biological diversity,” says Jonathan Loh, an honorary research fellow at the School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, U.K. “They are also the areas where decline is happening the fastest.”Half of the world’s languages, many spoken by only a few dozen or a few hundred people, are kept alive by only 0.1 percent of the world’s population, according to the WWF report. These are some of the most threatened languages.A young girl participates in the traditional “mono gordo” Sapara festival, which was celebrated for the first time in 30 years in June 2019. Image by Sarah Sax for Mongabay“Most of the world’s 7,000 languages are spoken by indigenous people. When the language is lost, the traditional and ecological knowledge that are encoded in the language [are] also lost,” says Loh, who co-authored the WWF report. “We could be losing a lot of potentially valuable knowledge. Who understands the species and the relationships to the ecosystem better than the people who have lived there for centuries?”The central idea of biocultural diversity is that the diversity of life on Earth is comprised not only of biodiversity but also of cultural and linguistic diversity, “all of which are interrelated (and possibly coevolved), within a complex socioecological adaptive system,” according to The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages.“People became interested in biocultural diversity for the same reasons people became interested in global biodiversity: It was starting to decline rapidly,” Loh says. A conservation biologist turned biocultural scientist, Loh became interested in the connection between biological and linguistic diversity when he became aware of the fact that thousands of languages worldwide were spoken by just a few people, largely in the tropics. “It very much reminded me of rare, endemic species distribution. So I started to do research. And here I am.”Biocultural diversity and the SáparaIn 2001, UNESCO recognized the language and traditions of the Sápara as an “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity,” in large part because of their complex oral culture, which is deeply marked by their environment and reflects a profound knowledge of the Amazonian jungle.Walking through the rainforest with a hunting party of Sápara, their deep knowledge of the forest is never far from sight. They bring no water or food with them. A large curuarawangu liana is cut, and from it flows sweet, filtered water. A midday snack of chonta palm and tuco, a grub that lives in the roots of the palm, is produced. A paca, a large forest rodent, is killed, and from the dozens of vines surrounding the hunting party, the sturdiest and most flexible are expertly chosen to tie up the heavy animal and carry it back to the community.The tuco grub, which lives in the roots of the chonta palm is a staple for the Sapara. Image by Sarah Sax for Mongabay.By far the most rapid losses in linguistic diversity have occurred in the Americas, where 60 percent of languages are threatened or have gone extinct since 1970.“There is so much to learn about the different Amazonian languages,” Bernat Bardagil Mas, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, who specializes in Amazonian indigenous languages, tells Mongabay. “What little we do know is this: How rich Amazonian linguistic diversity is, and how endangered most of the languages are.”According to Loh, most of the languages threatened with extinction are evolutionarily quite distinct from the few dominant world languages; they also represent very different cultures and knowledge systems. If trends continue as they have, this vast store of knowledge could largely be lost by the end of this century.“Conservation biologists sadly in the past have just focused on biological diversity,” he says. “But particularly in those biodiversity hotspots that are also linguistic and cultural hotspots, conservation really needs to take into consideration and conserve the whole of biocultural diversity, instead of just the biological diversity.”The Sápara now have a language revitalization plan in place, which includes teaching children the language at school, and developing pedagogical tools to help both children and adults relearn the language. For Ushigua, there is no doubt in her mind that any attempt to revitalize the language will directly impact the Sápara’s ability to also protect their forest.“Years ago I made the point that protecting the integrity of our forest and protecting our culture and language went hand in hand, but there were no spaces to do both, so I chose to fight for our territory,” she says. “But if the forest goes extinct, we as a people are done. And if we were not here, the forest would not exist in the same way it does today. It’s that simple.”The Sapara control 400,000 hectares of rainforest in the Ecuadorian Amazon, most of which sits on top of oil reserves that the Ecuadorian government is considering exploiting. Image by Sarah Sax for Mongabay.Banner Image Caption: The Sapara have been living in the Ecuadorian Amazon for centuries; their language and traditions reflect a deep knowledge of their environment. Image by Sarah Sax for Mongabay.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page. Article published by Willie Shubertcenter_img Amazon Biodiversity, Amazon Conservation, Anthropology, Biocultural Diversity, Culture, Food, Forests, Human Rights, Indigenous Culture, Indigenous Rights, Language last_img read more

Travelogue: Visiting an indigenous rainforest tribe in Borneo (Insider)

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by Rhett Butler Mongabay founder Rhett A. Butler writes about his visit to Sungai Utik, a Penan Iban community in Indonesian Borneo last month.Rhett visited Sungai Utik to see how the community has protected their customary forest from logging and deforestation.Sungai Utik was recognized for their efforts with the prestigious U.N. Equator Prize last month.This post is insider content, which is available to paying subscribers. In 2007, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) launched the Heart of Borneo, an initiative that aimed to conserve 22 million hectares (54 million acres) in the transboundary area of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. The agreement was signed between the three countries in February of that year. “HOB” conferences have been held on a… This content is for Monthly, Annual and Lifetime members only.Membership offers a way for readers to directly support Mongabay’s non-profit conservation news reporting, while getting a first-hand, behind-the-scenes look at what it takes to produce these stories. Every few weeks, we’ll publish a new member article that tells the story behind the reporting: the trials and tribulations of field reporting, personal travel accounts, photo essays, and more.You can sign up for membership Here If you’re already a member: Log InMembers getExclusive, behind-the-scenes articles.Access to our members-only newsletter.Access to periodic conversations with Mongabay journalists.center_img Archive, Conservation, Conservation Drones, Environment, Featured, Forests, Green, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Indigenous Cultures, Indigenous Peoples, Insider, Land Rights, Rainforest Conservation, Rainforest People, Rainforests, Tropical Forests last_img read more

Mysterious plants that thrive in darkness, steal food: Q&A with botanist Kenji Suetsugu

first_imgEnvironment, Forests, Green, Interviews, Orchids, Parasites, Plants, Research On Japan’s forest floors, there are plants that stay hidden and have given up on photosynthesis. These mycoheterotrophic plants are instead parasitic, drawing nutrition from the network of fungi running under the forest floor.For the past 10 years, Kenji Suetsugu, a botanist and associate professor at Japan’s Kobe University, has been on a mission to identify and document mycoheterotrophic plants across the country’s. His surveys have uncovered 10 previously undescribed species of these elusive plants.In a brief chat, Mongabay spoke with Suetsugu about the strange world of mycoheterotrophic plants, why it fascinates him, and why it’s an important indicator of ecosystem health. When Kenji Suetsugu is out looking for plants in Japan’s forests, he’s not looking for the usual green ones. Instead, on dark forest floors, where little light penetrates, Suetsugu painstakingly searches for tiny flowering plants that have more or less given up on photosynthesis and lack chlorophyll, the characteristic green pigment that helps plants make their own food from sunlight.He’s drawn in particular to plants that are mycoheterotrophic: parasitic plants that take their quota of nutrition from networks of fungi under the forest floor, without giving anything back to the fungi.The problem, however, is that these plants are incredibly hard to find. They tend to stay hidden underground and show up above ground only to flower or fruit, barely peeking through the leaf litter. This means that pinpointing them requires top-notch plant identification skills, special forest-floor sleuthing abilities, the support of past experiences, and some chance encounters.For the past 10 years, Suetsugu, a botanist and associate professor at Japan’s Kobe University, has been on a mission to identify and document mycoheterotrophic plants across Japan’s forests. In his surveys he’s uncovered 10 previously undescribed species of these elusive plants. A few of these species are especially unique, Suetsugu says, such as the orchids that never bloom.Gastrodia amamiana is one such orchid species that Mongabay wrote about recently. The plant, known from the islands of Amami-Oshima and Tokunoshima, not only relies completely on fungi for nutrition, it produces flowers that never seem to open up. Flowers typically need to bloom for a plant to be pollinated by wind or insects and other animals. Yet despite this apparent lack of pollination by other agents, this orchid species still produces fruits.Gastrodia amamiana, a recently described mycoheterotrophic plant from Japan that bears fruit without opening its flowers. Image courtesy of Kenji Suetsugu.Suetsugu says that while mycoheterotrophic plants tend to stay hidden, their presence is a strong indicator of a forest’s health. These plants need fungi to survive, and the fungi in turn are nourished and supported by the network of trees in the forest that they’re in a symbiotic relationship with. Disturbances to forests can upset these networks, causing the mycoheterotrophic plants to disappear. In fact, many species are now rare and threatened with extinction, Suetsugu says.In one of the forests where G. amamiana was discovered, for example, Suetsugu has seen evidence of tree thinning. The dry soil resulting from this disturbance could dry out the fungi that the orchid depends on, he said recently in a statement.In a brief chat, Mongabay spoke with Suetsugu about the strange world of mycoheterotrophic plants, and why it fascinates him.Mongabay: What got you interested in plants?Kenji Suetsugu: I was born in Nara City, Nara Prefecture and grew up near Nara Park, which has a rich and unique biota. My early childhood experiences of this habitat stimulated my interest in biological interactions and the natural history of intriguing organisms in terrestrial ecosystems.Kenji Suetsugu is a botanist and associate professor at Japan’s Kobe University. Image courtesy of Kenji Suetsugu.When and why did you start studying mycoheterotrophic plants? What fascinates you the most about them?The color green is a defining feature of the plant kingdom, and plants are generally assumed to have an autotrophic lifestyle [capable of making their own food]. However, several lineages of land plants have evolved dependence on other organisms for their nutrition and can consequently be categorized as heterotrophs. Their bizarre morphology and ecology fascinates me.In fact, most terrestrial plants, from bryophytes to angiosperms, form mutualistic relationships with fungi, whereby the plant provides carbon source [or sugars that they make] in exchange for essential mineral nutrients. Mutualisms, including mycorrhizal mutualisms, are often characterized as a balanced, reciprocal arrangement for the exchange of resources between two distantly related organisms. Such relationships also provide a window for exploitation by parasitic species that can acquire a resource without providing anything in return. Mycoheterotrophs are dependent on their fungal hosts for the essential supply of carbon resources in which the normal polarity of sugar movement from plant to fungus is reversed.Therefore, mycoheterotrophs are an interesting example of cheaters. Unraveling the ecological and evolutionary processes that govern the transition of autotrophic plants to heterotrophic plants will provide the deeper understanding of the dynamics of the mutualism and parasitism. I have wanted to elucidate how and why plants have lost their photosynthetic capacity and have been studying them for more than 10 years.Could you tell us about your project to document mycoheterotrophs in Japan?The distribution and diversity of mycohetrotrophs remains underestimated because plants are easily overlooked in the field due to their short flowering seasons and small size. Therefore, we are investigating mycoheterotrophic flora to enable us to study further.Monotropastrum humile, a mycoheterophic plant, lacks chlorophyll and steals nutrition from fungi. Image courtesy of Kenji Suetsugu.How do you find a mycoheterotrophic plant?Since mycoheterotrophic plants are very difficult to find unless they are flowering when botanical surveys are conducted; trained skills are required to identify the species characters. Actually, discovery of these taxa requires rich experiences and knowledge. It’s difficult to convey this in a detailed way. No special tools [are needed to study them], but a species-rich and old forest can be an indicator of mycoheterotrophic plants.How many new species of mycoheterotophic plants have you described from Japan so far?10 species.Some of these species you’ve described have flowers that never open. Could you tell us about how these plants survive without sunlight and pollination by other agents?Actually, some species such as Gastrodia amamiana were particularly special discoveries because it is both completely mycoheterophic, deriving its nutrition not from photosynthesis but from host fungi, and completely cleistogamous, producing flowers that never bloom. Cleistogamy, literally meaning ‘a closed marriage,’ refers to plants that produce flowers in which self-fertilization occurs within closed buds. However, this is a somewhat risky strategy as the selfing progeny are also less able to adapt to changes in spatially and temporally heterogeneous habitats. The evolution of complete cleistogamy is somewhat of a mystery, since outcrossing should overcome the negative effects such as the accumulation of deleterious mutations and a slowdown in the rate of adaptation. The discovery of species with flowers that never open provides a useful opportunity to further investigate the ecological significance, evolutionary history, and genetic mechanisms underlying the mysterious evolution.What’s your favorite mycoheretrophic plant from Japan, and why?Gastrodia takeshimensis. This is the first species I discovered and described.The description of a new flowering plant species in Japan is itself a very rare event as the flora of this region have been thoroughly investigated. Gastrodia takeshimensis was a particularly special discovery because it is both completely mycoheterotrophic and completely cleistogamous. It was really a happy moment.What are some challenges of studying this group of plants?The rarity and ephemeral status of the plants are challenging.What do you think about the conservation status of the mycoheterophic plants you’re documenting? Are some of them rare and in need of protection?Given that mycoheterotrophic plants are highly dependent on the activities of both the fungi and the trees that sustain them, they are particularly sensitive to environmental destruction. Therefore, many of them are endangered and in need of protection The genus Oxygyne, which includes species like O. yamashitae, for example, has one of the rarest plants in the world.In fact, it has been suggested that the species richness of these mycoheterotrophs provides a useful indicator of the overall floral diversity of forest habitats. A detailed record of the distribution of these vulnerable plants thus provides crucial data for the conservation of forests.Suetsugu described Sciaphila sugimotoi from Ishigaki Island in a study in 2017. Image courtesy of Kenji Suetsugu.Banner image of Thismia abei by Kenji Suetsugu. Article published by Shreya Dasguptacenter_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredlast_img read more

Newly described Chinese giant salamander may be world’s largest amphibian

first_imgThe critically endangered Chinese giant salamander is not just one, but three distinct species, researchers have now confirmed in a new study.One of the newly recognized species, the South China giant salamander (Andrias sligoi), could be largest amphibian on the planet, the researchers say.The researchers say they hope the recognition of the Chinese giant salamanders as three species will help the amphibians’ conservation by triggering separate management plans for the species. The Chinese giant salamander, which reaches lengths of more than 5 feet (1.6 meters), enjoys the title of being the world’s largest living species of amphibian. However, the critically endangered salamander is not just one, but three distinct species, researchers have now confirmed in a new study.One of the newly recognized species, the South China giant salamander (Andrias sligoi), could be largest amphibian on the planet, the researchers say.“These findings come at a time where urgent interventions are required to save Chinese giant salamanders in the wild,” Melissa Marr, a doctoral researcher at the Natural History Museum, London, and co-author of the study, said in a statement. “Our results indicate that tailored conservation measures should be put in place that preserve the genetic integrity of each distinct species.”A. sligoi painting. Image courtesy of ZSL.The Chinese giant salamander was once widespread across central, eastern and southern China. But habitat loss, poaching, and illegal collection for farming as luxury food items wiped out most animals, making them incredibly rare in the wild today. Millions of these salamanders live on farms, though.In a study published last year, Samuel Turvey, a conservation scientist at the Zoological Society of London, and colleagues who spent four years surveying the salamander’s preferred river habitats across 97 counties in China reported finding only 24 wild individuals at four sites. But even those were likely farmed animals, the researchers said, ones that had either escaped or had been released as part of government-sponsored conservation initiatives.For a long time, all Chinese giant salamanders were considered to be a single species, Andrias davidianus. Some researchers did suspect that the salamander likely comprised more than just the one species, and another study by Turvey and team published last year found just that: analysis of tissue samples from 70 wild-caught and 1,034 farm-bred salamanders showed that the Chinese giant salamander once included least five genetically distinct lineages. Today’s salamanders, however, show extensive hybridization as a consequence of mixing of the species through farming, the researchers said.These genetic studies, however, relied on samples collected in recent decades, when the salamanders had already been moved extensively for farming, making conclusions about distinct species difficult. In the latest study, Turvey and his colleagues analyzed samples from a series of historical museum specimens of the salamanders to see what the wild local populations of the Chinese giant salamander may have been like before the onset of widespread farming and movement of the animals by humans.In the end, the team identified three distinct genetic lineages, sufficiently different enough to represent separate species, each associated with a different river drainage system. These include A. davidianus, A. sligoi, and a third, yet-to-be-named species. The different species of Chinese giant salamanders began to diverge 3.1 million years ago, Turvey said, corresponding to a period of mountain formation in China, as the Tibetan Plateau rose rapidly.Of the three recognized species, the South China giant salamander (A. sligoi) is most likely the largest, reaching 2 meters (6 feet) in length, the researchers say. The third species, which is known only from tissue samples and not any complete specimen, hasn’t yet been formally described.The researchers say they hope that the recognition of the Chinese giant salamanders as three species will help the amphibians’ conservation by triggering separate management plans for the species. The team also urges that efforts be made to identify and protect sites where wild populations of the three different Chinese giant salamander species may still occur.“Salamanders are currently moved widely around China, for conservation translocation and to stock farms that cater for China’s luxury food market,” Turvey said. “Conservation plans must now be updated to recognise the existence of multiple giant salamander species, and movement of these animals should be prohibited to reduce the risk of disease transfer, competition, and genetic hybridisation.”A wild Chinese giant salamander. Image by Ben Tapley.Citation:Turvey, S. T., Marr, M. M., Barnes, I., Brace, S., Tapley, B., Murphy, R. W., … & Cunningham, A. A. (2019). Historical museum collections clarify the evolutionary history of cryptic species radiation in the world’s largest amphibians. Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1002/ece3.5257 Amphibians, Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Endangered Species, Environment, Green, New Species, Research, Salamanders, Species Discovery, Wildlife Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsoredcenter_img Article published by Shreya Dasguptalast_img read more

Analysis: The Tanah Merah project is a bellwether for Jokowi’s permit review

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Agriculture, Anonymous Companies, Climate Change, Climate Change And Forests, Corporate Environmental Transgressors, Corruption, Crime, Deforestation, Drivers Of Deforestation, Environment, Environmental Law, Environmental Politics, Featured, Forest Carbon, Forest Destruction, Forest Loss, Forestry, Forests, Governance, Indigenous Peoples, Land Grabbing, Logging, Palm Oil, Plantations, Politics, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforest Logging, Rainforests, Transparency, Tropical Forests Article published by mongabayauthorcenter_img This week, Mongabay and The Gecko Project revealed an allegation of forgery at the heart of the world’s largest oil palm plantation project.Permits underpinning the project, now being used to clear rainforest in the Indonesian part of New Guinea, were falsified, government officials have alleged.The case provides a window into how Indonesian President Joko Widodo’s administration is wrestling with the consequences of two decades of poorly regulated plantation expansion. This article was co-published with The Gecko Project. When Indonesian government officials received a credible allegation that the permits underpinning a giant oil palm plantation project in Papua province had been falsified, the logical next step might have been to launch a criminal investigation.After all, the consequences were huge: The project would result in the clearance of an area of rainforest twice the size of London, affecting thousands of indigenous people. If the allegation stood up, it was a fraud perpetrated against the government itself.However, as The Gecko Project and Mongabay revealed this week, the government has instead allowed the Tanah Merah project to go ahead. Officials have buried the allegation, cutting a deal with the companies involved to allow them to continue clearing forest. “It’s done,” one official involved told us.The case provides a rare glimpse into how competing government priorities are playing out behind closed doors, and which is winning. On the one hand, President Joko Widodo has pledged to rein in the palm oil sector, which has been plagued by illegalities and corruption widely seen as exacerbating its role in driving deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the president has expressed his intent to bring “development” to remote regions.In this instance, at least three government ministries have turned a blind eye to a credible allegation of criminality that will have enormous environmental impacts, in the interests of protecting investment.Indonesia has long struggled to impose order on plantation and mining firms. Successive studies by the government itself have revealed the scale of unlawful oil palm plantation development.Just this year, the government audit agency, known as the BPK, found that more than 80 percent of large plantations were not compliant with regulations, and another investigation found a fifth were operating illegally in the “forest zone.”Under Widodo, things are supposed to be moving in a different direction. It is specifically because of the weak regulation of the sector, believed to have played a significant role in the forest fires that choke the region on an annual basis, that last year the president instructed his government to carry out a legal review of all oil palm plantation permits in the country.Yet in the government’s internal deliberations over what to do about the allegedly fraudulent permits, Widodo’s review played at best a limited role. Far greater weight was placed on other recent regulations aimed at streamlining investment.The decision is all the more perplexing — and concerning — for the fact that the project is in Indonesia’s easternmost Papua region.The two provinces that make up this region, Papua and West Papua, hold more than a third of the remaining intact rainforest in Indonesia. Last October, the two provincial governors pledged to protect 70 percent of all the land in their jurisdictions, preserving it from the industrial-scale activities that have shredded rainforests almost everywhere else in Indonesia.The pledge was a cornerstone of the Manokwari Declaration, a manifesto for a more sustainable vision of the future, in which forests and biodiversity would be protected and the rights of indigenous peoples would be strengthened. A development pathway would be forged without the trail of destruction and exploitation seen in other parts of the countryThe stakes are high. If the spirit of the declaration succeeds, Indonesia will preserve one of the world’s last great expanses of wilderness, potentially avoiding enough greenhouse gas emissions for the country to uphold its commitment under the Paris Agreement on climate change. Fail, and the target could be out of reach.While the 70 percent pledge was the most attention-grabbing feature, the Manokwari Declaration also committed the governors to “uphold law enforcement” in the natural resources sector. This — the rule of law — is arguably the most important enabling factor for the policy to succeed. Without it, protected areas and indigenous rights will be rendered meaningless.For this reason, while the Tanah Merah project may on its own cut a gaping hole in the rainforest, its significance may extend even further. It could be a bellwether that indicates whether the Manokwari Declaration is window dressing while the government allows the same laissez-faire approach to development that has attracted global ignominy, or whether it is really ready to forge a new path.Banner: Rainforest in Boven Digoel, the district in Papua where the Tanah Merah project is located. Image by Nanang Sujana for The Gecko Project and Mongabay.FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more

Bolsonaro’s Brazil: 2019 brings death by 1,000 cuts to Amazon — part one

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Agriculture, Amazon Agriculture, Amazon Conservation, Amazon Destruction, Cattle, Cattle Pasture, Cattle Ranching, Conservation, Controversial, Deforestation, Drivers Of Deforestation, Environment, Environmental Crime, Environmental Politics, Featured, Forests, Green, Illegal Logging, Indigenous Groups, Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Rights, Industrial Agriculture, Land Conflict, Land Grabbing, Land Rights, Land Use Change, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforests, Saving The Amazon, Threats To The Amazon, Transparency, Tropical Deforestation While the media focused in 2019 on Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro’s incendiary remarks, or on the Amazon fires, he has quietly instituted new policies likely to aid land grabbers and do great harm to Amazon forests, indigenous and traditional peoples. “Death by 1,000 Cuts” parts 1 and 2 reviews those policies.Executive decree MP 910 issued December 11 legalizes large-scale land grabbing. The large-owner loophole built into the new decree allows land speculators to register large swathes of public lands that they grabbed before December 2018, using the illegal deforestation they accomplished as proof of their “occupation.”MP 910 could transfer 40-60 million hectares of public land to private owners who would then be authorized to legally deforest a fifth of that land, about 10 million hectares, experts say. MP 910 is likely to trigger high rates of conflict and deforestation. Congress must approve MP 910 in 120 days to make it permanent.The agriculture ministry also chose to make secret part of its ranching database, thwarting Visipec, an NGO-designed tool for tracking cattle raised on calving ranches where major deforestation occurs. Other administrative measures benefit big agribusiness over small family farms, and muzzle civil society voices. Logging trucks lacking license plates remove trees illegally harvested from an indigenous reserve in Pará state, Brazil. Image by Sue Branford / Mongabay.Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro is a man of incendiary words and big gestures. As such, he has attracted the attention of global media who cover his major outbursts and policy initiatives, as he pledges to open indigenous reserves to mining and agribusiness, and as he dismantles environmental and social agencies, firing those who oppose him.But over recent months Bolsonaro has quietly announced a flurry of measures that, while flying under the media radar, are making it easy for land grabbers to acquire large tracts of land in Amazonia — paving the way for the elite owners of garimpos (artisanal mines), and transnational mining companies to move into indigenous reserves and other protected areas.At the same time, the government has brought all agrarian reform to a standstill and halted altogether the previously snail-slow process of demarcating land occupied by indigenous and traditional populations — boundary marking guaranteed under the 1988 Constitution.These administrative changes, announced piecemeal, add up to a major shake-up regarding land tenure, and result in a drastic tipping of the never-level playing field, benefiting the wealthy and powerful. This restructuring is also emerging as potentially the most substantial anti-environmental policy shift since the military dictatorship, which ended in 1985 — making it the biggest threat to the Brazilian Amazon and its people.This is the first of two articles in which Mongabay surveys these measures representing a death by 1,000 cuts. This first piece concentrates mainly on the benefits to land speculators, while the second will largely cover mining.An IBAMA environmental agency agent looks out over devastated rainforest within Jamanxim National Forest in Pará state Brazil. Under Bolonsaro’s executive decree MP 910, this illegal deforestation could be used as proof of “occupation” by land grabbers to lay claim to the public lands which they invaded. Image courtesy of IBAMA.MP 910: Legalized land grabbingAfter months of rumor that a major land tenure measure was imminent, Bolsonaro finally issued executive decree MP 910 on December 11.The decree, which Bolsonaro pledges will end land chaos, especially in the Amazon, is cloaked in a promise to benefit the thousands of peasant families who have long occupied public land, some arriving in the 1970s with the encouragement of the military government. Finally, they will find it easy to register their small plots, Bolsonaro said, which means they’ll be able to obtain bank loans so as to increase agricultural production.The executive measure is already in force, but under Brazilian law must be approved by Congress within 120 days or cease to be valid. With the bancada ruralista agribusiness lobby dominant in the legislature, passage of MP 910 seems almost certain.The government estimates that the measure will lead to the registration of some 300,000 properties, 86% of them in Amazonia by the National Institute of Agrarian Reform and Colonization (INCRA).However, there’s more here than meets the eye, say analysts. Even though many small landholders may be beneficiaries, a closer look at the decree reveals a hidden agenda. Those smallholders, while large in number, only occupy a small portion of total claimed land. The real winners will be large-scale farmers, including many elite wealthy land grabbers. Although these ruralists make up only a small minority of beneficiaries, they’ll become legal owners of the largest amount of land by far.The large-owner loophole built into the new decree is, according to experts, an open invitation for land speculators to register large swathes of public lands that they illegally grabbed before December 2018. Building on land tenure decrees issued first by President Lula in 2009 and then by President Temer in 2017, MP 910 permits land grabbers to seize land, deforest it and then register it as theirs.Deforestation for soy in the Brazilian Amazon. Image by Rhett A. Butler / Mongabay.At the heart of the loophole: a term known as “self-declaration.” Before the decree was published, Luiz Antônio Nabham Garcia, a leading ruralist and the powerful federal Secretary of Land Affairs, noted that the new land rule would be based on “self-declaration” or autodeclaração, a process that allows would-be landowners, based only on their say-so, to declare the size of their properties, without need for independent verification on the ground.The only way the government will check these claims is through satellite imaging, accepting as “proof of occupation” deforestation carried out before December 2018 — deforestation on public land which was completely illegal at the time. Put simply, MP 910 legitimizes the theft of public lands by asking land grabbers for proof of an illegal act they committed in the past as grounds for the legalization of a land claim today.Even before MP 910 was issued, “self-declaration” was extremely controversial. In October, Bolsonaro sacked INCRA head General João Carlos Jesus Corrêa, because he had become “a thorn in the side” of Nabham over the issue. Successor, Geraldo Melo Filho, is aligned with the ruralists.Corrêa wasn’t alone. The Federal Audit Court (TCU), a powerful government body that monitors the federal government’s accounts, expressed disquiet that the expedited procedure would invite abuse. The government responded by keeping the policy intact but banning the use of the term “autodeclaração.”These logs, illegally cut on conserved land, were seized in an IBAMA raid in 2017. Under Bolsonaro, such raids have been greatly reduced, giving land grabbers a largely free rein. Image courtesy of IBAMA.Environmentalists sound the alarmRaul Valle, Director of Socioenvironmental Justice at WWF-Brasil, says that the measure will not only reward land grabbers for past actions, but encourages further land grabbing, as it creates the expectation that it will be easy to register land stolen today. “It rewards the strongest, as they get the land title,” he said.According to some analysts, the decree will probably lead to the handing over of between 40-60 million hectares (145,000-232,000 square miles) of public land to private landowners. These new owners will then be authorized to legally deforest a fifth of that land, about 10 million hectares (39,000 square miles), though part of this area may already be cleared. The figure will probably be much higher, if illegal deforestation is included. MP 910 is likely to trigger extremely high rates of violence and deforestation, equivalent, critics say, to that caused by Amazon highway construction by Brazil’s military government in the 1970s.Writing in El País, the journalist, Eliane Brum, expects that land speculators will use force to seize land occupied by peasant families that land thieves covet. In fact, this is already happening, she says. In Anapu, the town in Pará state where American nun, Dorothy Stang, was murdered in 2005, two rural leaders were killed this month. Lax law enforcement in the Amazon under Bolsonaro is likely to exacerbate conflict, as will the president’s incendiary remarks critical of indigenous groups and traditional communities that critics say emboldens ruralists to commit violence.Brum warns: “If congress doesn’t stop this decree, Amazonia will become a forest of corpses. Not of trees, but of people.”Cattle ranching is the primary driver of deforestation in Brazil’s Amazon basin today. By making a portion of Brazil’s cattle tracking database secret, the federal government has effectively thwarted NGO efforts to track ranching linked to illegal deforestation. Image © Henrique Manreza courtesy of The Nature Conservancy.Promoting agribusinessBesides legitimizing large-scale land grabbing, the Bolsonaro government has taken other measures to encourage the expansion of agribusiness in the Amazon.It has revoked a decree that forbade the expansion of sugarcane into sensitive areas, like the Pantanal wetlands and Amazonia — a policy that environmentalists fear will drive deforestation.In another discreet move, the agriculture ministry decided that part of its database will no longer be publicly available because it contains “personal information” that “does not interest the general public.” This seemingly innocuous move will have significant consequences, preventing the tracking of cattle from calving ranches (where major deforestation occurs) to cattle laundering farms (where no tree loss occurs), before the adult animals are sold to slaughterhouses.The newly announced database secrecy will thwart Visipec, a recently developed system to track the movement of cattle from origin to meat processing plant, created by University of Wisconsin researchers working in cooperation with the National Wildlife Federation.Though the tracking tool has the potential to reduce deforestation from the meat supply chain and the National Wildlife Federation has offered Visipec free to meatpackers, none, including the biggest, JBS, has accepted the offer. Now that Bolsonaro has shut down public access to cattle data, Visipec won’t work.As The New York Times pointed out, the tracking tool would have closed “what some experts suggest has been a convenient loophole for all parties in the Brazilian cattle industry.” Keeping the cattle deforestation loophole wide open makes life easier for meatpackers while foiling environmentalists.In another move, the government has made it harder to impose fines on buyers of illegal timber. Until Eduardo Bim, the president of IBAMA, altered regulations in November, buyers could be fined by IBAMA, Brazil’s environmental agency, if they bought timber illegally extracted from protected areas and indigenous units.Now fines can only be charged if IBAMA can prove intent, that the buyers knew that the documents claiming to show that the timber was legally felled were fraudulent. According to Márcio Astrini, from Greenpeace, the new norm creates “a kind of second-scale impunity in the commercial chain,” — intent is a very difficult legal claim to prove.A family farm that currently supplies food for public schools. A new government policy will allow states to decide which farms provide school meals, increasing the likelihood that large plantations will be favored over small farms. Image courtesy of FNDE.Reducing support for small producersThe government, while facilitating agribusiness, is also ending some of the long-standing programs that supported small family farms — important providers of staple foods to Brazilians.One key policy shift alters a long-established government program mandating that small farms be prioritized in the sale of food to municipal and state governments for the free lunch programs through which thousands of Brazilian public schools feed their pupils.Selling food to schools has been an important source of family farm income since 2009 when the Lula government decided that at least 30% of resources used by the National Fund for the Development of Education (FNDE) to fund school meals be used to purchase food directly from family farmers. The government made it clear then that it wanted to give “priority to agrarian reform settlements, indigenous communities and quilombolas,” communities made up of runaway slave descendants.Now, a bill in Congress, proposed by ultra-conservative senator Izalci Lucas (under investigation for financial fraud), would leave it to municipal and state governments to set the percentage of food purchased from family farms. Given that many of these governments are ruralist-controlled, it seems likely they would increase purchases from big, commercial farms, while cutting off small producers in agrarian reform settlements, indigenous communities and quilombolas.Indigenous people, like these Munduruku warriors, have battled for years to gain access to government to better protect land rights and the environment. Reorganization of administrative councils and other government bodies is being used to deny a voice to civil society and environmentalists, according to critics. Image by Mauricio Torres.Muting civil society voicesEven as it boosts land grabber rights and agribusiness opportunities, the Bolsonaro government is silencing civil society representatives who formerly provided a voice for those most likely to be harmed by Amazon deforestation and development. In particular, the administration has restructured government entities charged with combating deforestation and reducing Brazil’s climate change impacts.In April 2019, Bolosonaro closed down hundreds of government boards and bodies that included members of both civil society and government. In so doing, it assured that Brazil would arrive at the United Nations climate summit in December (COP25) with no delegates representing Brazilian environmental organizations — making it unlikely anyone would embarrass Bolsonaro by raising objections to Brazil’s rising deforestation rates and its abandonment of its commitment to meet its Paris Climate Agreement carbon cut pledges.At the end of November, just three days before COP25 began, the government announced five decrees recreating some of the abolished public organs. But the bodies’ composition has been changed by Environment Minister Ricardo Salles: they are smaller and without representatives of civil society, or with too few to influence public policy.One example: the Protected Areas of Amazonia Program (ARPA), considered the most ambitious program in the world for the preservation of tropical forests. The membership of its administrative council has been cut from 12 to seven members. The Environment Ministry, which used to have two members, now has none. Civil society, which once had two members, now has one, and private donors, once with three seats, now have only one.In similar fashion the government changed the composition of the Consultative Council of the National Fund for Forest Development (FNDF). Until mid-October 2019, FNDP had 14 members, three each from social movements, environmental organizations and traditional communities. Now the number of members has been reduced to seven, with all of those groups losing their members. FNDP promotes technological innovation and encourages collaborations with industry relating to forests.The government’s dismissive attitude toward international concern over Brazil’s rapidly rising deforestation rate and contribution to the climate crisis was perhaps best reflected in a Twitter post by Environment Minister Salles in Madrid as December’s COP25 was ending. “To compensate for our emissions at COP, a veggie meal,” he wrote, accompanying his words with a photo of a gigantic plate piled high with barbecued beef. Whatever else may be said, the Bolsonaro administration has made it clear who it supports, and who it doesn’t.Banner image caption: Under MP 910, illegally deforested public land, like that seen here inside the Kayapó indigenous territory in Pará state, can be legitimately claimed by the land grabber who cut down the trees, using the illegal deforestation as proof of “occupation.”FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.center_img Article published by Glenn Schererlast_img read more

Deforestation clips howler monkey calls, study finds

first_img Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Article published by John Cannon Agriculture, Animal Behavior, Animals, Biodiversity, Conservation, Deforestation, Ecology, Edge Effects, Environment, Forest People, Forests, Green, Mammals, Monkeys, Plantations, Primates, Rainforest Animals, Rainforests, Research, Saving Rainforests, Threats To Rainforests, Tropical Forests, Wildlife, Wildlife Conservation center_img In a recent study, scientists report that howler monkeys in Costa Rica make longer calls in forest interiors and near naturally occurring forest edges, such as those along rivers, than near human-created edges.The researchers believe that the longer howls serve as a way for male monkeys to protect their groups’ access to higher-quality food resources.The team’s findings indicate that this behavioral change in response to deforestation supports the protection of standing forest and reforestation along human-created forest edges. Howler monkeys change their calls when they’re close to deforested areas, a new study has found.A team of researchers, led by anthropologist Laura Bolt of the University of Waterloo in Canada, looked at the frequency and intensity of mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) calls through several different study zones in Costa Rica in 2017 and 2018.A mantled howler monkey in Costa Rica. Image by Rhett A. Butler/Mongabay.They found that calls were longer among groups living in more pristine environments. As monkey groups moved closer to forest edges created by humans — breaks in the forest created by agricultural plantations, for instance — their calls grew shorter.Bolt and her colleagues don’t know yet whether this shift points to a change in the monkeys’ chances at survival, she said, but it is clear that the human-caused deforestation that creates forest edges is changing their behavior.“This is just one of the many ways that howler monkeys are affected by deforestation,” Bolt said in a statement.A male howler monkey at a wildlife sanctuary in Costa Rica. Image by Steven G. Johnson via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0).The team looked at how the calls morphed as monkey groups moved through the forest interior, along forest edges created by river banks, and near edges created by humans.Scientists aren’t sure exactly why howler monkeys howl, their calls traveling for kilometers through the canopy. But Bolt and her colleagues suspect that the behavior has something to do with warning other monkeys that a set of plentiful food resources is spoken for.“Howler monkeys eat leaves and fruit, and if they are howling to defend these resources, we predicted that males would howl for longer durations of time when in a forest interior or near the river edge, where vegetation is richer compared to anthropogenic edge,” Bolt said.Howler monkey calls can travel for kilometers through the canopy. Image by Rhett A. Butler/Mongabay.Monkeys — males, specifically — howled the longest when they were near higher-quality sources of food, which occur more often deep in the forest or along natural edges than along fences and plantation edges.It’s evidence, the authors reported Dec. 3 in the journal Behaviour, that conservation efforts aimed at protecting these monkeys should focus on maintaining standing forests and the naturally occurring edges near rivers, as well as helping the forest come back in places where humans have created forest edges.Banner image of a mantled howler monkey in Costa Rica by Scott Robinson via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0 ).Citation:Bolt, L. M., Russell, D. G., Coggeshall, E. M., Jacobson, Z. S., Merrigan-Johnson, C., & Schreier, A. L. (2019). Howling by the river: howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) communication in an anthropogenically-altered riparian forest in Costa Rica. Behaviour, 1(aop), 1-24. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-00003582FEEDBACK: Use this form to send a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can do that at the bottom of the page.last_img read more

Mack’s Stubbs hits bank shot with five seconds left to give Panthers 76-75 OT win over Piner in first round of AIBT

first_imgArcata >> A.J. Stubbs may not hit a bigger shot in his life.The McKinleyville Panthers forward took a pass from teammate Leo Ashford and hit a short bank shot with just five seconds left to give Mack a 76-75 overtime victory over the Piner Prospectors in a first-round game at the 49th Annual Jerry Paul Arcata Invitational Basketball Tournament on Thursday evening at Arcata High School.“I just felt like it was right for me to take it,” said Stubbs, who finished with six points in the game. “It …last_img read more