Analysis of cervical precancer shows decline in two strains of HPV

first_img Source:https://www.aacr.org/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Feb 21 2019An analysis of cervical precancers over a period of seven years showed that two strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) that have been targeted by vaccination since 2006 have declined, accounting for a smaller proportion of cervical disease. The study offers evidence that HPV vaccination reduced the incidence of infections that can lead to cervical cancerJournal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.Author: Nancy McClung, PhD, RN, epidemic intelligence service officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.Background: “Almost all sexually active individuals will get HPV at some point in their lifetime, but most HPV infections go away on their own without any treatment,” McClung explained. “If an HPV infection does not go away, it can cause cell changes that, over time, develop into a lesion on the cervix called a cervical precancer. Cervical precancers allow us to observe the impact of HPV vaccination earlier than cervical cancer, which can take decades to develop.”Previous research has suggested that the incidence of cervical precancer has been decreasing. In this study, researchers sought to determine whether HPV types 16 and 18, which are responsible for approximately 70 percent of cervical cancers worldwide, are also decreasing. These two types have been targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, which was most typically administered in the United States between 2006 and 2015, and by the 9-valent vaccine that is the only vaccine currently administered in the United States.How the Study Was Conducted: As part of the CDC’s Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Impact Monitoring Project (HPV-IMPACT), McClung and colleagues analyzed more than 10,000 archived specimens collected between 2008 and 2014 from women aged 18-39 who had been diagnosed with grade 2 or 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+). Both are precancerous conditions that can arise from persistent HPV infection and can lead to cervical cancer. Researchers tested the samples for 37 HPV types, then analyzed the proportion and estimated number of cases by HPV types over time.Results: The researchers found that the number of cases of CIN2+ reported to HPV-IMPACT declined 21 percent, from 2,344 in 2008 to 1,857 in 2014. The estimated number of cases attributed to HPV16/18 declined from 1,235 in 2008 to 819 cases in 2014.Among women who were vaccinated, the proportion of CIN2+ cases that were HPV 16/18-positive declined from 55.2 percent to 33.3 percent. Among unvaccinated women, the proportion of CIN2+ cases that were HPV 16/18-positive declined from 51.0 percent to 47.3 percent, and among those with unknown vaccination status, from 53.7 percent to 45.8 percent.Related StoriesLiving with advanced breast cancerBacteria in the birth canal linked to lower risk of ovarian cancerNovel vaccine against bee sting allergy successfully testedAuthor’s Comments: McClung explained that some vaccinated women were most likely HPV 16/18-positive because they were infected with these HPV types before they were vaccinated. The majority of vaccinated women in this study received the vaccine in their early 20s, after the age most women initiate sexual activity.McClung said the decline in unvaccinated women may be due to “herd protection,” which occurs when a significant proportion of a population has developed immunity to an infectious disease, making its spread less likely. Herd protection can be conferred through vaccination or immunity built up from prior infection, she explained.Researchers noted that every age group saw significant declines in the proportion of CIN2+ cases that were HPV 16/18-positive, with the exception of the oldest group, those aged 35-39. McClung said this finding reflects the fact that most of these women were not eligible for vaccination because of their age.Furthermore, while non-Hispanic whites and blacks saw declines in the proportion of HPV 16/18-positive precancers, Hispanic and Asian women did not. McClung said that the Hispanic and Asian women included in this study may have been less likely to be vaccinated. However, as of 2016, HPV vaccine uptake was robust in Hispanic and Asian teens; therefore, racial and ethnic disparities are expected to diminish, McClung said.The CDC’s most recent statistics show that 49.5 of girls and 37.5 percent of boys aged 13-17 are up-to-date on all recommended doses of the HPV vaccine. McClung said clinicians should continue to strongly recommend the HPV vaccine for all preteens at age 11 or 12, and effectively answer parents’ common questions about the vaccine.Overall, McClung said, the study indicated that efforts to encourage families to get the HPV vaccination for their teens are paying off and should be continued.”This is clear evidence that the HPV vaccine is working to prevent cervical disease in young women in the United States,” McClung said. “In the coming years, we should see even greater impact as more women are vaccinated during early adolescence and before exposure to HPV.”last_img read more

UK parliament asks Zuckerberg to testify in data misuse case

UK seeking warrant to access Cambridge Analytica servers (Update) © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Citation: UK parliament asks Zuckerberg to testify in data misuse case (2018, March 20) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-uk-parliament-zuckerberg-testify-misuse.html A British parliamentary committee on Tuesday summoned Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg to answer questions on fake news as authorities step up efforts to determine whether data has been improperly used to influence elections. Explore further The request comes amid reports that a U.K.-based company allegedly used Facebook data to help Donald Trump win the 2016 presidential election. The company, Cambridge Analytica, has been accused of improperly using information from more than 50 million Facebook accounts. It denies wrongdoing.The chairman of the U.K. parliamentary media committee, Damian Collins, said Tuesday that his group has repeatedly asked Facebook how it uses data and that Facebook officials “have been misleading to the committee.””It is now time to hear from a senior Facebook executive with the sufficient authority to give an accurate account of this catastrophic failure of process,” Collins wrote in a note addressed directly to Zuckerberg. “Given your commitment at the start of the New Year to ‘fixing’ Facebook, I hope that this representative will be you.”The request to appear comes as Britain’s information commissioner said she was using all her legal powers to investigate the social media giant and Cambridge Analytica over the alleged misuse of data.Commissioner Elizabeth Denham is pursuing a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica’s servers. She has also asked Facebook to cease in its efforts to pursue its own audit of Cambridge Analytica’s data use.”Our advice to Facebook is to back away and let us go in and do our work,” she said.Cambridge Analytica said it is committed to helping the U.K. investigation. However, Denham gave the firm a deadline to produce the information she requested—and it failed to meet it, her office said.Denham said the prime allegation against Cambridge Analytica is that it acquired personal data in an unauthorized way, adding that the data provisions act requires platforms like Facebook to have strong safeguards against misuse of data.Chris Wylie, who once worked for Cambridge Analytica, was quoted as saying the company used the data to build psychological profiles so voters could be targeted with ads and stories.The firm found itself in further allegations of wrongdoing. Britain’s Channel 4 used an undercover investigation to record Cambridge Analytica’s chief executive, Alexander Nix, saying that the company could use unorthodox methods to wage successful political campaigns for clients.He said the company could “send some girls” around to a rival candidate’s house, suggesting that girls from Ukraine are beautiful and effective in this role.He also said the company could “offer a large amount of money” to a rival candidate and have the whole exchange recorded so it could be posted on the internet to show that the candidate was corrupt.Nix says in a statement on the company’s website that he deeply regrets his role in the meeting and has apologized to staff.”I am aware how this looks, but it is simply not the case,” he said. “I must emphatically state that Cambridge Analytica does not condone or engage in entrapment, bribes or so-called ‘honeytraps’, and nor does it use untrue material for any purposes.”Nix told the BBC the Channel 4 sting was “intended to embarrass us”.”We see this as a co-ordinated attack by the media that’s been going on for very, very many months in order to damage the company that had some involvement with the election of Donald Trump,” he said.The data harvesting used by Cambridge Analytica has also triggered calls for further investigation from the European Union, as well as federal and state officials in the United States. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

Novel process for surface hardening of stainless steel

Citation: Novel process for surface hardening of stainless steel (2018, April 11) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-04-surface-hardening-stainless-steel.html Most heat treatment methods cannot be easily applied to stainless steels to improve its properties. In particular, surface hardening of stainless steel by nitriding and nitrocarburising in the conventional temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C is highly detrimental to its corrosion properties. A possible solution is implementing processes that enable lower-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel. The EU-funded project PLASSTEEL has developed an advanced process for low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel that allows accurate tailoring of the material properties. The new heat treatment process can be applied to all ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex grades, imparting the material with unparalleled levels of wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. Increasing hardness at lower temperaturesBased on more than 40 years of experience, IONITECH LTD has developed a plasma nitriding/nitrocarburising furnace achieving excellent temperature uniformity on the whole working area. “The novel plasma nitriding furnace also eliminates the possibility for the ‘hollow-cathode’ effect. This local overheating might lead to temperatures above those needed for the PLASSTEEL process that will in turn lead to chromium carbide and chromium nitride precipitations on the grain boundaries of the steel. These areas will have higher surface hardness but will also be susceptible to intergranular corrosion,” says leading research and development specialist Alexander Varhoshkov. The PLASSTEEL process is based on plasma technology and composed of a solution nitriding and nitrocarburisation process at temperatures below 500°C that enriches the surface layer of a workpiece with nitrogen and carbon. The carbon-containing gas added in nitrocarburisation can be methane, propane or natural gas. Its content varies from 2 to 10 % in the gas mixture. The treatment step can last from several minutes up to 20 hours, depending on the workpiece material and the requirements regarding the layer depth. Throughout the project, several types of stainless steels were processed and tested. Depending on the percentage of the alloying elements in these steels as well as other properties, results slightly varied. “Some of the alloying elements made diffusion of the carbon atoms harder and slower, thus leading to small differences in the diffusion layer and surface hardness. Nevertheless, in any case, the goal was to improve the wear properties of all types of stainless steel, while also retaining their corrosion properties,” says Dr. Varhoshkov.A process as true as steelMost surface-hardening techniques diminish the original corrosion resistance of stainless steels. IONITECH’s advanced new process and plasma nitriding furnace show that this is no longer the norm. “This shortcoming is successfully circumvented by this excellent plasma nitriding furnace that provides precise control over the material properties,” continues Dr. Varhoshkov. Working at low temperatures provided a remedy for dissolving nitrogen or carbon into stainless steel without the formation of chromium nitrides or carbides. Project partners succeeded not only in increasing the surface hardness of the parts by 4 times, but also in improving adhesive and abrasive wear, and the tribological properties of the metal as well. Explore further Antibacterial stainless steel created Stainless steel is the material of choice in various industries where corrosion resistance is of utmost importance, take for instance parts that are exposed to harsh environments. However, this highly favourable property does not always go hand in hand with high surface hardness, wear resistance and fatigue strength. Provided by CORDIS Credit: Alexander Varhoshkov This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. read more

Top five news stories to watch out for on June 3

first_imgCOMMENTS Published on June 03, 2019 SHARE COMMENTcenter_img Robert Vadra   –  The Hindu Puducherry Assembly Deputy Speaker, V. P. Sivakolundhu, is set to be elected Speaker of the House on Monday. The 68-year-old Congress leader will assume the office of Speaker during a special session of the House convened by the Lt Governor. With Sivakolundhu, who won from Lawspet MLA, alone filing his nomination papers before the Assembly Secretary, A Vincent Rayar, on Sunday, he is for all practical purposes elected ‘unopposed’ as the Speaker of the House, a report said. Ministers and Legislators of the Congress and its ally, the DMK, proposed and seconded his name for the post of Speaker, which has been lying vacant after senior Congress leader V Vaithilingam quit the post on March 21 to contest the Lok Sabha polls.A Delhi court is to pass on June 3 its order on an application filed by Robert Vadra, accused in a money laundering case, to travel abroad. The Enforcement Directorate opposed Vadra’s plea seeking permission to travel to the UK and two other countries citing health reasons. The ED said the probe is at a crucial stage. “His custodial interrogation is required and may flee. He is facing serious charges. His medical condition is merely a pretext where laundered money is parked. The medical condition appears to be is routine medical check-up,” said Solicitor-General,Tushar Mehta, appearing for the ED.Fares of the AC local train in Mumbai operated by the Western Railway (WR), are set to rise from June 3. The minimum fare for a single journey ticket will now cost Rs 65 instead of Rs 60, while the maximum fare will be Rs 220 instead of Rs 205. The fare hike is due to the Ministry of Railways’ decision to withdraw the introductory offer. “The fare hike will come into effect from June 3, when the AC local train resumes services after its usual weekend break,” an official said. The Telangana Pradesh Congress Committee chief Uttam Kumar Reddy will resign as Huzurnagar MLA on May 3. Uttam won as MLA in the last assembly elections and also emerged victorious in the parliament elections from Nalgonda. He has decided to continue as an MP and will resign as MLA. The Congress leader will submit his resignation to the Speaker. After his resignation, by-elections will be announced in Huzurnagar.In World Cup action, England take on Pakistan in Trent Bridge on Monday. While England has two points from its win against South Africa, Pakistan has yet to open its account, having lost to the West Indies in its first outing. SHARE SHARE EMAILlast_img read more

Hands off my data Making your devices border safe

first_img Culture 18h ago Of Nostalgia And Emotional Ties To Stuff Related News Tech News 10 Jul 2019 Marriott faces US$124mil fine from UK for data hacking Related News {{category}} {{time}} {{title}} Tech News 08 Jul 2019 TM to offer Unifi Air with unlimited data at RM79, according to leaked slide (Updated) The Electronic Frontier Foundation has some guidelines for anyone worried about having their devices seized during border controls. — dpa These days, you hear more and more reports of travellers being asked to unlock their smartphone and hand it over to officials at borders and airports for inspection. It’s even been reported that the Chinese government installs a surveillance app on visitors’ smartphones.How you want to prepare for such a situation depends entirely on your own risk assessment, says the civil rights organisation Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF).Factors you should consider include your travel history and the sensitivity of your data. The EFF offers some tips if you do decide to take precautions:- Back up your data: Before the trip, back up all data on smartphones, tablets or notebooks that you’re bringing along. This will protect against total data loss if a device is seized. – Buy a travel phone: This way, you can use a device with little or no sensitive data for the duration of the trip.- Delete or outsource data: If you are travelling with your regular device, you should delete as much data on it as possible, from emails to documents to your browser history. Alternatively, you can store your data, preferably encrypted, in a cloud service.- Data hiding is no use: There are apps that can be used to hide documents and pictures on smartphones, and notebook hard drives can be set up with hidden partitions. However, border guards know about these methods.- Don’t use biometric access locks: Fingerprint, eye and face scanners are convenient but less secure than strong passwords.- Encrypt: The EFF advises full-disk encryption of your devices. For iPhones, this is done automatically via the password. For Android devices you have to enable it in the settings. Both Windows and Mac laptops also have built-in encryption programs.- Switch off: Turn off your devices before you reach the border or control point – this may prevent high-tech attacks.- No unusual precautions: These can make border guards suspicious, warns the EFF. For example, someone who takes a new or visibly unused phone out of their pocket while keeping their regular device hidden is likely to attract attention and so be even more thoroughly investigated.- After the border check: If you believe that after the check your devices are being spied on, you should change all your passwords. If you suspect spyware has been installed, you should reset your mobile device to its factory settings or reformat your notebook. – dpalast_img read more